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1.
Efficient and robust photocatalysts for environmental pollutants removal with outstanding stability have great significance. Herein, we report a kind of three dimensional (3D) photocatalyst presented as Z-scheme heterojunction, which combining TiO 2 and Zn x Cd 1- x S with graphene aerogel to contrast TiO 2 -Zn x Cd 1- x S graphene aerogel (TSGA, x = 0.5) through a moderate hydrothermal process. The as-prepared Z-scheme TSGA was used to remove aqueous Cr(VI) via a synergistic effect of adsorption and visible light photocatalysis. The adsorption equilibrium can be reached about 40 min, then after about 30 min irradiation under visible light (wavelength ( λ) > 420 nm) the removal rate of Cr(VI) almost reached 100%, which is much better than the performance of pristine TiO 2 and Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S, as well as TiO 2 graphene aerogel (TGA) and Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S graphene aerogel (SGA). The virulent Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) with hypotoxicity after photocatalysis on TSGA, meanwhile the as-synthesized TSGA presented a good stability and reusability. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets between TiO 2 and Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S played a role as charge transfer mediator, promoting the photoinduced electrons transfer and photocatalysis ability of TSGA was enhanced significantly. Hence,such photocatalyst exhibits a potential application on removing heavy metals with high efficiency and stability from polluted aqueous environment.  相似文献   
2.
The CO2 absorption capacities of potassium glycinate, potassium sarcosinate (choline, proline), mono-ethanolamine (MEA), and tri-ethanolamine were evaluated to find the optimal absorbent for separating CO2 from gaseous products by a CO2 purification process. The absorption loading, desorption efficiency, cost, and environmental tolerance were assessed to select the optimal absorbent. MEA was found to be the optimum absorbent for separating the CO2 and H2 mixture in gaseous product. The maximum absorption loading rate was 0.77 mol CO2 per mol MEA at temperature of 20°C and absorbent concentration of 2.5 mol/L, whereas desorption efficiency was 90% by heating for 3 h at 130°C. MEA was found to be an optimal absorbent for the purification process of CO2 during gaseous production.  相似文献   
3.
洪涝灾害条件下疏散交通生成预测方法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为有助于有关部门更准确预测洪涝灾害受灾民众的疏散量,结合非集计数据和集计数据的优点,提出分区集计数据的概念,设计了受灾区域分区方法,并通过意向偏好(SP)调查法对我国居民在洪涝条件下疏散交通需求数据进行调查。在此基础上,引入BP神经网络建立基于分区集计数据的疏散交通生成预测模型。利用调查数据进行实证分析发现,所设计方法取得了较好的预测效果,鲁棒性较好,平均相对预测误差仅为1.8%,其预测效果明显优于现有的非集计和整集计模型。  相似文献   
4.
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has been proposed to promote sustainable trade, but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behavior remain neglected but essential steps in the design and evaluation of such operations. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands, where turtles have been farm raised for human consumption for almost 50 years, as a case study to explore consumer preferences toward wild‐sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications. Combining methods innovatively (including indirect questioning and choice experiments), we conducted a nationwide trade assessment through in‐person interviews from September to December 2014. Households were randomly selected using disproportionate stratified sampling, and responses were weighted based on district population size. We approached 597 individuals, of which 37 (6.2%) refused to participate. Although 30% of households had consumed turtle in the previous 12 months, the purchase and consumption of wild products was rare (e.g., 64–742 resident households consumed wild turtle meat [i.e., 0.3–3.5% of households] but represented a large threat to wild turtles in the area due to their reduced populations). Differences among groups of consumers were marked, as identified through choice experiments, and price and source of product played important roles in their decisions. Despite the long‐term practice of farming turtles, 13.5% of consumers showed a strong preference for wild products, which demonstrates the limitations of wildlife farming as a single tool for sustainable wildlife trade. By using a combination of indirect questioning, choice experiments, and sales data to investigate demand for wildlife products, we obtained insights about consumer behavior that can be used to develop conservation‐demand‐focused initiatives. Lack of data from long‐term social–ecological assessments hinders the evaluation of and learning from wildlife farming. This information is key to understanding under which conditions different interventions (e.g., bans, wildlife farming, social marketing) are likely to succeed.  相似文献   
5.
6.
Background, Aim and Scope Air quality is an field of major concern in large cities. This problem has led administrations to introduce plans and regulations to reduce pollutant emissions. The analysis of variations in the concentration of pollutants is useful when evaluating the effectiveness of these plans. However, such an analysis cannot be undertaken using standard statistical techniques, due to the fact that concentrations of atmospheric pollutants often exhibit a lack of normality and are autocorrelated. On the other hand, if long-term trends of any pollutant’s emissions are to be detected, meteorological effects must be removed from the time series analysed, due to their strong masking effects. Materials and Methods The application of statistical methods to analyse temporal variations is illustrated using monthly carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at an urban site. The sampling site is located at a street intersection in central Valencia (Spain) with a high traffic density. Valencia is the third largest city in Spain. It is a typical Mediterranean city in terms of its urban structure and climatology. The sampling site started operation in January 1994 and monitored CO ground level concentrations until February 2002. Its geographic coordinates are W0°22′52″ N39°28′05″ and its altitude is 11 m. Two nonparametric trend tests are applied. One of these is robust against serial correlation with regards to the false rejection rate, when observations have a strong persistence or when the sample size per month is small. A nonparametric analysis of the homogeneity of trends between seasons is also discussed. A multiple linear regression model is used with the transformed data, including the effect of meteorological variables. The method of generalized least squares is applied to estimate the model parameters to take into account the serial dependence of the residuals of this model. This study also assesses temporal changes using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter. The KZ filter has been shown to be an effective way to remove the influence of meteorological conditions on O3 and PM to examine underlying trends. Results The nonparametric tests indicate a decreasing, significant trend in the sampled site. The application of the linear model yields a significant decrease every twelve months of 15.8% for the average monthly CO concentration. The 95% confidence interval for the trend ranges from 13.9% to 17.7%. The seasonal cycle also provides significant results. There are no differences in trends throughout the months. The percentage of CO variance explained by the linear model is 90.3%. The KZ filter separates out long, short-term and seasonal variations in the CO series. The estimated, significant, long-term trend every year results in 10.3% with this method. The 95% confidence interval ranges from 8.8% to 11.9%. This approach explains 89.9% of the CO temporal variations. Discussion The differences between the linear model and KZ filter trend estimations are due to the fact that the KZ filter performs the analysis on the smoothed data rather than the original data. In the KZ filter trend estimation, the effect of meteorological conditions has been removed. The CO short-term componentis attributable to weather and short-term fluctuations in emissions. There is a significant seasonal cycle. This component is a result of changes in the traffic, the yearly meteorological cycle and the interactions between these two factors. There are peaks during the autumn and winter months, which have more traffic density in the sampled site. There is a minimum during the month of August, reflecting the very low level of vehicle emissions which is a direct consequence of the holiday period. Conclusions The significant, decreasing trend implies to a certain extent that the urban environment in the area is improving. This trend results from changes in overall emissions, pollutant transport, climate, policy and economics. It is also due to the effect of introducing reformulated gasoline. The additives enable vehicles to burn fuel with a higher air/fuel ratio, thereby lowering the emission of CO. The KZ filter has been the most effective method to separate the CO series components and to obtain an estimate of the long-term trend due to changes in emissions, removing the effect of meteorological conditions. Recommendations and Perspectives Air quality managers and policy-makers must understand the link between climate and pollutants to select optimal pollutant reduction strategies and avoid exceeding emission directives. This paper analyses eight years of ambient CO data at a site with a high traffic density, and provides results that are useful for decision-making. The assessment of long-term changes in air pollutants to evaluate reduction strategies has to be done while taking into account meteorological variability  相似文献   
7.
The most widely used method for fetocide in late termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities (TOPFA) consists of injecting of potassium chloride (KCl) into the fetal heart and is likely to be painful after 22 weeks of gestation. We studied ten consecutive women undergoing TOPFA between 22 and 38 weeks. This technique for fetocide consisted of a single umbilical vein puncture under ultrasound guidance with injections of sufentanil 5 µg followed by KCl 2 g. No electrocardiographic modifications could be observed and maternal plasma potassium levels did not show any significant variation throughout the procedure. Fetal umbilical phlebotomy for fetal analgesia followed by fetocide therefore appears to be a safe procedure for the mother and allows the fetus to die without pain when late termination of pregnancy (TOP) is indicated. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
The structure of the choroid plexus was studied in five normal human embryos, three normal fetuses and three fetuses with choroid plexus cysts. These were detected by ultrasound and the fetuses were karyotypically normal. The choroid plexus appears in the lateral cerebral ventricles at the seventh developmental week. The early structure is lobulated with vessels running in the mesenchymal stroma and forming capillary nets under the single-layered ependymal epithelium. This embryonal structure is converted into the fetal type during the ninth developmental week as the embryonal capillary net is replaced by elongated loops of wavy capillaries that lie under regular longitudinal epithelial folds. The choroid plexus cysts exhibited accumulation of fluid within distended mesenchymal stroma and did not show the wavy folds on this surface, which was smooth. Within this connective tissue of the cyst wall were distended angiomatous interconnecting thin-walled capillaries. Therefore, filled cavities were not lined by any epithelium. We suggest that fetal choroid plexuses cysts (at least in many cases) are in fact pseudocysts exhibiting angiomatous patterns of capillaries in their walls. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f. tricolor (Rehd.) Rehd. in relation to atmospheric pollutants in Córdoba city, Argentina. The study area receives regional pollutants and was categorized taking into account traffic level, industrial density, type of industry, location of the sample point in relation to the street corner, treeless condition, and topographic level. Dried weight/fresh weight ratio (DW/FW) and specific leaf area (SLA) were calculated, and concentrations of chlorophylls, carotenoids, total sulfur, soluble proteins, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydroperoxy conjugated dienes (HPCD) were determined in leaf samples. Sulfur content correlates positively with traffic density and SLA correlates negatively with some combinations of the categorical variables; MDA correlates positively with topographic level and total protein concentration correlates negatively with treeless condition. On the basis of our results, traffic, location of trees, type of industry, situation of a tree with respect to others, and topographic level are the environmental variables to bear in mind when selecting analogous sampling points in a passive monitoring program. An approximation to predict tree injury may be obtained by measuring DW/FW ratio, proteins, pigments, HPCD, and MDA as they are responsible for the major variability of data.  相似文献   
10.
Single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) requires high efficiency and accuracy. Allele dropout (ADO), the random amplification failure of one of the two parental alleles, remains the most significant problem in PCR-based PGD testing since it can result in serious misdiagnosis for compound heterozygous or autosomal dominant conditions. A number of different strategies (including the use of lysis buffers to break down the cell and make the DNA accessible) have been employed to combat ADO with varying degrees of success, yet there is still no consensus among PGD centres over which lysis buffer should be used (ESHRE PGD Consortium, 1999 ). To address this issue, PCR amplification of three genes (CFTR, LAMA3 and PKP1) at different chromosomal loci was investigated. Single lymphocytes from individuals heterozygous for mutations within each of the three genes were collected and lysed in either alkaline lysis buffer (ALB) or proteinase K/SDS lysis buffer (PK). PCR amplification efficiencies were comparable between alkaline lysis and proteinase K lysis for PCR products spanning each of the three mutated loci (ΔF508 in CFTR 90% vs 88%; R650X in LAMA3 82% vs 78%; and Y71X in PKP1 91% vs 87%). While there was no appreciable difference between ADO rates between the two lysis buffers for the LAMA3 PCR product (25% vs 26%), there were significant differences in ADO rates between ALB and PK for the CFTR PCR product (0% vs 23%) and the PKP1 PCR product (8% vs 56%). Based on these results, we are currently using ALB in preference to PK/SDS buffer for the lysis of cells in clinical PGD. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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