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1.
Cultural heritage is being addressed by a number of charters and conventions and it is clear that its consideration within decision-making processes is progressively becoming a real challenge, both for developers and public authorities. Against this background, this paper reviews the environmental assessment framework developed by the European Community, as this should increasingly influence decision making about cultural heritage in an urban setting. The legislative framework for access to environmental information is also reviewed because of its relevance to the decision-making process.The Directives on Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment both require a consideration of cultural heritage in decision making. This requirement can go some way to addressing the paradox in the European Community's position whereby the community wishes to conserve and enhance its own cultural identity whilst, at the same time, cultural heritage is usually defined at a local level. The present paper suggests that, given their flexibility, the two European Community directives on environmental assessment constitute a promising opportunity to address this seeming paradox, but that there is a significant gap between legal obligations and the methodological tools to meet them.  相似文献   
2.
This article reviews the application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures and practices to three watershed modification projects situaled in western Canada. These ventures were justified for accelerating regional economic development, and cover the period during which public concerns for protecting the environment rapidly made their way into the national political agenda. An historical account and analysis of the situation, therefore, seems desirable in order to understand the development of EIA processes, practices, and methodologies since the start of construction of the first project in 1961. This study concludes that there has been good progress in predicting and evaluating environmental and related social impacts of watershed modification proposals. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before EIA can firmly establish itself as an effective planning tool. These difficulties include jurisdictional confusions and conflicts, division of authority and responsibility in designing and implementing appropriate mitigative and monitoring measures, lack of tested EIA methodologies, and limited availability of qualified human resources. A number of conclusions and suggestions are offered so that future watershed modification proposals may be planned and implemented in a more environmentally sustainable fashion. These include: (1) EIA processes must be completed before irrevocable decisions are made. (2) Any major intrusion into a watershed is likely to impact on some major components of the ecosystem(s). (3) Mitigation costs must form part of the benefit-cost analysis of any project proposal. (4) Interjurisdictional cooperation is imperative where watersheds cross political boundaries. (5) The EIA process is a public process, hence public concerns must be dealt with fairly. (6) The role of science in the EIA process must be at arms length from project proponents and regulators, and allowed to function in the interest of the protection of the environment and public health and safety. The views expressed here are the authors’ own and do not necessarily reflect those of FEARO and/or other government agencies and officials involved in the review of these projects.  相似文献   
3.
湖北省湿地的保护与利用   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
湿地是地球上具有多功能的、独特的生态系统,是人类最重要的生存环境之一。湖北省地处长江中游,湿地类型多,面积较大,河、湖湿地系统是主要的湿地类型。湖北湿地具有较大的资源潜力和环境调节功能,是自然界生物多样性丰富的生态景观。近年来,湖北省湿地保护面临人口增长的压力,围垦、污染和过度开发等对湿地保护构成了严重威胁,湿地环境遭到干扰和破坏。加强湿地科学的研究,保护管理好湖北湿地及其生态环境,实现湿地资源的持续利用,是湖北省2l世纪环保工作所面临的一项重要而紧迫的任务。  相似文献   
4.
论环境产业   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文在可持续发展视角下,把环境的保护、修复、维护的生产活动及与之直接相关的服务活动称为环境产韭,包括发挥减少、避免污染环境作用的资源再利用鼗和发挥治理污染物与修复、改善环境作用的环境维护业.通过探讨环境产业的内涵、发展历程、运行机制和在产业体系中的位置与作用,指出环境产业是在法规保障下政府强行推动产生和发展起来的,是产业体系中不可缺少的重要组成部分;考虑自然环境对社会行为的影响,改进政府行为构建适台环境产业与传统产业协调发展的经济体制是加快发展环境产业的关键.  相似文献   
5.
This paper provides an introduction to some of the fundamental principles and approaches in environmental economics which are of significance to achieving an integrated sustainability science. The concept of a circular economy, introduced by the late David Pearce in 1990, addresses the interlinkages of the four economic functions of the environment. The environment not only provides amenity values, in addition to being a resource base and a sink for economic activities, it is also a fundamental life-support system. Environmental economists have suggested that, taking these four functions as an analytical starting point, unpriced or underpriced services should be internalised in the economy. In Europe significant advances have been achieved in the pricing of externalities by means of truly interdisciplinary analysis which accounts in detail for the environmental consequences. The monetary estimates reached as a result of such interdisciplinary research are gradually being applied to the economic analysis of environmental policy priorities. Although such figures provide only a partial and incomplete picture of the environmental costs at stake, they support and inform the analysis of the virtues of a circular economy for individual resources as well as for sustainability as a future trajectory.  相似文献   
6.
/ Why are some environmental risks distributed disproportionately in the neighborhoods of the minorities and the poor? A hypothesis was proposed in a recent study that market dynamics contributed to the current environmental inequity. That is, locally unwanted land uses (LULUs) make the host communities home to more poor people and people of color. This hypothesis was allegedly supported by a Houston case study, whereby its author analyzed the postsiting changes of the socioeconomic characteristics of the neighborhoods surrounding solid waste facilities. I argue that such an analysis of postsiting changes alone is insufficient to test the causation hypothesis. Instead, I propose a conceptual framework for analysis of environmental equity dynamics and causation. I suggest that the presiting neighborhood dynamics and the characteristics of control neighborhoods be analyzed as the first test for the causation hypothesis. Furthermore, I present theories of neighborhood change and then examine alternative hypotheses that these theories offer for explaining neighborhood changes and for the roles of LULUs in neighborhood changes. These alternative hypotheses should be examined when analyzing the relationship between LULUs and neighborhood changes in a metropolitan area. Using this framework of analysis, I revisited the Houston case. First, I found no evidence that provided support for the hypothesis that the presence of LULUs made the neighborhoods home to more blacks and poor people, contrary to the conclusion made by the previous study. Second, I examined alternative hypotheses for explaining neighborhood changes-invasion-succession, other push forces, and neighborhood life-cycle; the former two might offer better explanation.KEY WORDS: Environmental equity and justice; Locally unwanted lane uses; Siting; Market dynamics; Invasion-succession; Neighborhood changes  相似文献   
7.
现有文献认为生态转移支付具有基本公共服务均等化与提升地方生态环境质量双目标,而目标的多样性会影响地方财政转移支付资金效果及目标的实现。文章基于环保支出和农林水支出的中介与调节效应,对生态转移支付的生态环境目标进行了理论分析,利用2010—2018年甘肃、贵州、湖北及河南四省的199个县的面板数据进行实证检验。实证研究表明:在样本期内,生态转移支付促进了地方生态环境质量的提升,中介效应和调节效应模型的结果表明,中国地方生态转移支付资金对辖区环境保护效果中,环境保护支出起到部分中介效应,农林水支出不仅调节了生态转移支付的地方环境保护支出效果,而且调节了环境保护支出对地方环境质量的影响。因此,由于地方政府具有环境治理信息优势,省以下制度目标更能体现辖区生态需求,省对县生态转移支付制度会有效促进地方生态环境质量的改善,环保激励效应较为明显。同时,县级地方政府应该逐步摆脱"先污染后治理"的路径依赖,逐步转向经济与环境"双目标协同发展"模式。为了协同生态转移支付的双目标,"自下而上参与式决策"可以作为环境治理的有益补充,通过地方政府多元化实践改善环境质量。  相似文献   
8.
Cake layer formation is inevitable over time for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane-based drinking water treatment. Although the cake layer is always considered to cause membrane fouling, it can also act as a “dynamic protection layer”, as it further adsorbs pollutants and dramatically reduces their chance of getting to the membrane surface. Here, the UF membrane fouling performance was investigated with pre-deposited loose flocs in the presence of humic acid (HA). The results showed that the floc dynamic protection layer played an important role in removing HA. The higher the solution pH, the more negative the floc charge, resulting in lower HA removal efficiency due to the electrostatic repulsion and large pore size of the floc layer. With decreasing solution pH, a positively charged floc dynamic protection layer was formed, and more HA molecules were adsorbed. The potential reasons were ascribed to the smaller floc size, greater positive charge, and higher roughness of the floc layer. However, similar membrane fouling performance was also observed for the negative and positive floc dynamic protection layers due to their strong looseness characteristics. In addition, the molecular weight (MW) distribution of HA also played an important role in UF membrane fouling behavior. For the small MW HA molecules, the chance of forming a loose cake layer was high with a negatively charged floc dynamic protection layer, while for the large MW HA molecules it was high with a positively charged floc dynamic protection layer. As a result, slight UF membrane fouling was induced.  相似文献   
9.
Released Ag ions or/and Ag particles are believed to contribute to the cytotoxicity of Ag nanomaterials, and thus, the cytotoxicity and mechanism of Ag nanomaterials should be dynamic in water due to unfixed Ag particle:Ag+ ratios. Our recent research found that the cytotoxicity of PVP-Ag nanoparticles is attributable to Ag particles alone in 3 hr bioassays, and shifts to both Ag particles and released Ag+ in 48 hr bioassays. Herein, as a continued study, the cytotoxicity and accumulation of 50 and 100 nm Ag colloids in Escherichia coli were determined dynamically. The cytotoxicity and mechanisms of nano-Ag colloids are dynamic throughout exposure and are derived from both Ag ions and particles. Ag accumulation by E. coli is derived mainly from extracellular Ag particles during the initial 12 hr of exposure, and thereafter mainly from intracellular Ag ions. Fe3+ accelerates the oxidative dissolution of nano-Ag colloids, which results in decreasing amounts of Ag particles and particle-related toxicity. Na+ stabilizes nano-Ag colloids, thereby decreasing the bioavailability of Ag particles and particle-related toxicity. Humic acid (HA) binds Ag+ to form Ag+-HA, decreasing ion-related toxicity and binding to the E. coli surface, decreasing particle-related toxicity. HA in complex conditions showed a stronger relative contribution to toxicity and accumulation than Na+ or Fe3+. The results highlighted the cytotoxicity and mechanism of nano-Ag colloids are dynamic and affected by environmental factors, and therefore exposure duration and water chemistry should be seriously considered in environmental and health risk assessments.  相似文献   
10.
长江口海域生态环境状况及保护对策   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
为加快推进长江口海域的生态环境保护和修复工作,结合长江经济带大保护,系统总结分析了近20年长江口环境质量和生态监控区的监测结果.结果表明:①长江口海域生态系统长期处于亚健康状态.②长江径流总量呈现波动变化,年均流量无明显的变化,而长江口海域海水环境状况一直较差.③营养盐污染严重,主要污染物是无机氮和活性磷酸盐;浮游生物和底栖生物群落结构不稳定,存在生境破碎化严重、外来生物入侵、赤潮频发、低氧区等诸多生态问题.为加强长江口海域生态环境的保护与修复,建议:①加强顶层设计,推进落实陆海统筹;②科学规划临港产业布局,加强涉海产业的污染管理;③加强污染物入海排放管控,提升海洋环境保护意识;④保障海洋生态建设资金,强化海洋生态保护与建设.   相似文献   
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