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1.
洪泽湖水体富营养化时空分布特征与影响因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
通过2014年—2017年对洪泽湖12个水质断面定期调查,采用营养状态指数(TLI)综合评价其水体富营养状态,同时应用主成分分析方法(PCA)分析其富营养化状态的时空变化特征。结果表明,洪泽湖70%以上的调查断面水质全年处于轻度富营养化状态,夏季是其富营养化最严重的季节;洪泽湖年内水体水质差异较大,而其水华特征并未呈现明显差异;洪泽湖富营养化很大程度上受制于营养盐的积累程度,并与湖泊透明度呈现极显著的负相关关系(p0.001),与湖水pH值呈现极显著的正相关关系。  相似文献   
2.
石溪水库水环境容量研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
分析了江西宜春石溪水库的水环境状况,运用沃伦威德尔模型和狄龙模型等水库水环境容量计算方法,对石溪水库COD Mn、NH 3-N、TN、TP的水环境容量进行了计算。结果表明:石溪水库2012年水质为Ⅳ类,营养状态为中营养,入库的污染物量超出其自净能力。将水环境容量按照Ⅲ类和Ⅱ类水标准分为近期目标和远期目标,按近期目标CODM n、NH 3-N、TN、TP的超标率分别为7.6%、86.1%、121.1%、40.7%。在此基础上,分析了石溪水库水污染原因,提出了水污染控制方案。  相似文献   
3.
Excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading of aquatic ecosystems is a leading cause of eutrophication and harmful algal blooms worldwide, and reducing nutrient levels in water has been a primary management objective. To provide a rational protection strategy and predict future trends of eutrophication in eutrophic lakes, we need to understand the relationships between nutrient ratios and nutrient limitations. We conducted a set of outdoor bioassays at the shore of Lake Taihu. It showed that N only additions induced phytoplankton growth but adding only P did not. Combined N plus P additions promoted higher phytoplankton biomass than N only additions, which suggested that both N and P were deficient for maximum phytoplankton growth in this lake (TN:TP = 18.9). When nutrients are present at less than 7.75-13.95 mg/L TN and 0.41-0.74 mg/L TP, the deficiency of either N or P or both limits the growth of phytoplankton. N limitation then takes place when the TN:TP ratio is less than 21.5-24.7 (TDN:TDP was 34.2-44.3), and P limitation occurs above this. Therefore, according to this ratio, controlling N when N limitation exists and controlling P when P deficiency is present will prevent algal blooms effectively in the short term. But for the long term, a persistent dual nutrient (N and P) management strategy is necessary.  相似文献   
4.
Water quality in rivers is vital to humans and to maintenance of biotic and ecological integrity. During the Four Major Rivers restoration of South Korea, remarkable attempts have been made to decrease external nutrient loads and moveable weirs were designed to discharge silt that may deposit in pools. However, recently eutrophication of the Nakdong River, which was limited to the lower reaches, is seen to be spreading upstream. The reduction of external nutrient loads to rivers is a long-term goal that is unlikely to lead to reductions in algal blooms for many years because of the time required to implement effective land management strategies. It would therefore be desirable to implement complementary strategies. Regulating the amount of water released is effective at preventing algae blooms in weir pools; so, the relationship between discharge, stratification and bloom formation should be understood in this regard. However, pollutants are likely to accumulate in the riverbed upstream from release points. Thus, to control phosphorus levels, total phosphorus density should be lowered by applying in-river techniques as well. As many ecosystem properties are controlled by multiple processes, simultaneous river bottom improvement techniques, such as combined dissolved oxygen supply and nutrient inactivation, are likely to be effective. The purpose of this review is to present a series of technological approaches that can be used to improve the river bottom area and hence sediment nutrient release, and to illustrate the application of these techniques to the Nakdong River.  相似文献   
5.
The environmental degradation of lakes in China has become increasingly serious over the last 30 years and eutrophication resulting from enhanced nutrient inputs is considered a top threat. In this study, a quasi-mass balance method, net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), was introduced to assess the human influence on N input into three typical Chinese lake basins. The resultant NANI exceeded 10 000 kg N km−2 year−1 for all three basins, and mineral fertilizers were generally the largest sources. However, rapid urbanization and shrinking agricultural production capability may significantly increase N inputs from food and feed imports. Higher percentages of NANI were observed to be exported at urban river outlets, suggesting the acceleration of NANI transfer to rivers by urbanization. Over the last decade, the N inputs have declined in the basins dominated by the fertilizer use but have increased in the basins dominated by the food and feed import. In the foreseeable future, urban areas may arise as new hotspots for nitrogen in China while fertilizer use may decline in importance in areas of high population density.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-015-0638-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.  相似文献   
6.
Hypoxia has occurred intermittently over the Holocene in the Baltic Sea, but the recent expansion from less than 10 000 km2 before 1950 to >60 000 km2 since 2000 is mainly caused by enhanced nutrient inputs from land and atmosphere. With worsening hypoxia, the role of sediments changes from nitrogen removal to nitrogen release as ammonium. At present, denitrification in the water column and sediments is equally important. Phosphorus is currently buried in sediments mainly in organic form, with an additional contribution of reduced Fe-phosphate minerals in the deep anoxic basins. Upon the transition to oxic conditions, a significant proportion of the organic phosphorus will be remineralized, with the phosphorus then being bound to iron oxides. This iron-oxide bound phosphorus is readily released to the water column upon the onset of hypoxia again. Important ecosystems services carried out by the benthic fauna, including biogeochemical feedback-loops and biomass production, are also lost with hypoxia. The results provide quantitative knowledge of nutrient release and recycling processes under various environmental conditions in support of decision support tools underlying the Baltic Sea Action Plan.  相似文献   
7.
Although fish are usually thought of as victims of water quality degradation, it has been proposed that some planktivorous species may improve water quality through consumption of algae and sequestering of nutrients via growth. Within most numerical water quality models, the highest trophic level modeled explicitly is zooplankton, prohibiting an investigation of the effect a fish species may be having on its environment. Conversely, numerical models of fish consumption do not typically include feedback mechanisms to capture the effects of fish on primary production and nutrient recycling. In the present study, a fish bioenergetics model is incorporated into CE-QUAL-ICM, a spatially explicit eutrophication model. In addition to fish consumption of algae, zooplankton, and detritus, fish biomass accumulation and nutrient recycling to the water column are explicitly accounted for. These developments advance prior modeling efforts of the impact of fish on water quality, many of which are based on integrated estimates over an entire system and which omit the feedback the fish have through nutrient recycling and excretion. To validate the developments, a pilot application was undertaken for Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) in Chesapeake Bay. The model indicates menhaden may reduce the algal biomass while simultaneously increasing primary productivity.  相似文献   
8.
Eero Asmala  Laura Saikku 《Ambio》2010,39(2):126-135
Ongoing eutrophication is changing the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Aquaculture causes relatively small-scale nutrient emissions, but local environmental impact may be considerable. We used substance flow analysis (SFA) to identify and quantify the most significant flows and stocks of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) related to rainbow trout aquaculture in Finland. In 2004–2007, the input of nutrients to the system in the form of fish feed was 829 t N year−1 and 115 t P year−1. Around one-fifth of these nutrients ended up as food for human consumption. Of the primary input, 70% ended up in the Baltic Sea, directly from aquaculture and indirectly through waste management. The nutrient cycle could be closed partially by using local fish instead of imported fish in rainbow trout feed, thus reducing the net load of N and P to a fraction.  相似文献   
9.
Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen.  相似文献   
10.
生态补水对玄武湖水质的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
分析南京玄武湖1997年-2010年的水质变化,以及生态补水与玄武湖水质变化的关系。结果表明,玄武湖于1998年实施生态补水,随着生态补水的持续运行和生态补水量的不断增加,玄武湖水质得以显著改善,其水质类别由生态补水前的劣V类水体转为V类水体,并接近于Ⅳ类水体,富营养化程度由重度富营养化水平转为轻度富营养化水平。目前玄武湖主要营养物质来源于生态补水,相关性分析显示各湖区TN浓度与生态补水中TN浓度呈显著相关关系。  相似文献   
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