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1.
建立了一种利用固相萃取法对固体废物浸出液(TCLP)中二硝基苯进行萃取,DB-5石英毛细管柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25μm)进行分离,质谱检测器检测二硝基苯的方法。方法在0.002 0~0.020 0 mg/L之间线性关系良好,二硝基苯三种同分异构体的检出限均为0.5μg/L,模拟样品加标回收率为93%~96%,RSD≤2%;实际固体废物样品测定的加标回收率为95%~98%。  相似文献   
2.
湖北省2008年初低温雨雪冰冻过程气候特征分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
2008年初,湖北省出现了严重的低温雨雪冰冻灾害,直接经济损失高达110亿元以上,有必要对灾害期间的气候特征进行系统、科学的分析和总结。对湖北省76个气象站2008年1月12日~2月3日气温、降水(雪)、日照以及低温持续日数等要素进行时空间差异分析及历史与同期比较,并选取10个代表站历史上所有低温雨雪天气过程,对其过程持续低温日数、最长连续雨雪日数、过程极端低温进行比较分析。结果表明:(1)此次过程的平均气温异常偏低,该省大部为-1~-2℃,比常年同期偏低4~6℃,为各站历史同期最低,其中主要是最高气温异常偏低所致,但极端低温并不低;(2)降雪过程频繁,雨雪量异常偏多;(3)低温冰冻持续时间长,该省大部在16~22 d,位于历史第一;(4)日照异常偏少。持续而稳定的大气环流异常形势是湖北省大范围低温雨雪天气的直接原因。  相似文献   
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4.
Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams adjacent to cornfields, streams where cows had unrestricted access, and reference locations without agriculture were compared to examine the effects of local land use and land use/land cover in the watershed. At each local site, macroinvertebrates and a variety of habitat parameters were measured upstream, adjacent, downstream, and farther downstream of the local land use. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate drainage basin area, land use/land cover percentages in each basin, and the distance from sample sites to the stream source. Three‐way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests with date, site type, and sampling location as main effects were used to explore differences in macroinvertebrate metrics using median substrate size, percent hay/pasture area, and stream depth as covariates. The covariates significantly improved model fit and showed that multiple contributing factors influence community composition. Local impacts were greatest at sites where cows had access, probably because of sedimentation and embeddedness in the substrate. Differences between the upstream and the adjacent and downstream locations were not as great as expected, perhaps because upstream recolonization was reduced by agricultural impacts or because of differences in the intensity or proximity of agriculture to riparian areas in the watershed. The results underscore the importance of both local and watershed factors in controlling stream community composition.  相似文献   
5.
为了更好地发挥产氢产酸/同型产乙酸耦合系统在废水厌氧发酵生产乙酸方面的优势,有必要寻找一种简单有效的方法以获得该系统产酸的优化条件.利用经过加热处理并活化的厌氧污泥作种泥,以模拟废水中的葡萄糖为底物,针对发酵时间、底物浓度、种泥浓度、初始pH进行4因素10水平均匀设计实验,得到了乙酸生产指标与产酸条件之间关系的回归方程;也得到了以高乙酸产量为主要目标导向同时兼顾高乙酸产率和高乙酸生产强度目标的优化条件;优化条件实验乙酸浓度比均匀设计中最高乙酸浓度提高20%左右.研究表明,将均匀设计应用于废水产氢产酸/同型产乙酸耦合产酸条件优化,可以避免盲目性,迅速获得满意结果.  相似文献   
6.
湖州市埭溪镇污水处理厂的设计规模,近期为2万m^2/d,远期为3万m^2/d,其污水处理工艺采用改良式A^2/O工艺,污泥处理工艺采用带式浓缩脱水一体机。文中着重介绍了工程设计参数、处理工艺流程及其设计特点。  相似文献   
7.
Background, Aims and Scope Sediments of the Spittelwasser creek are highly polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals due to the discharge of untreated waste waters from the industrial region of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany over the course of more than one century. However, relatively few data have been published about the chloroorganic contamination of the sediment. This paper reports on the content of different (chloro)organic compounds with special emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), and chlorobenzenes. Existing concepts for the remediation of Spittelwasser sediment include the investigation of natural attenuation processes, which largely depend on the presence of an intact microbial food web. In order to gain more insight in terms of biological activity, we analyzed the capacity of sediment microflora to degrade organic matter by measuring the activities of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Furthermore, the detection of physiologically active bacteria in the sediment, particularly of those known for their capability to reductively dehalogenate organochlorine compounds, illustrates the potential for intrinsic bioremediation processes. Methods PCDD/F and chlorobenzenes were analyzed by gas chromatography(GC)/mass spectrometry and GC/flame ionization detection, respectively. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes were determined from freshly sampled sediment layers using 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-conjugated model compounds and kinetic fluorescence measurements. Physiologically active bacteria from different sediment layers were microscopically visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Specific bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Results and Discussion The PCDD/F congener profile was dominated by dibenzofurans. In addition, the presence of specific tetra and pentachlorinated dibenzofurans supported the assumption that extensive magnesium production was one possible source for the high contamination. A range of other chloroorganic compounds, including several isomers of chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chloro-phenyl)ethane (DDT), was present in the sediment. Activities of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes showed a strong decrease in those sediment layers that were characterized by high contents of absorbable organic halogen (AOX), indicating disturbed organic matter decay. Interestingly, an abnormal increase of cellulolytic enzyme activities below the organochlorine-rich layers was observed, possibly caused by residual cellulose from discharges of sulfite pulping wastes. FISH revealed physiologically active bacteria in most sediment layers from the surface down to the depth of about 60 cm, including members of Desulfitobacterium (D.) and Sulfurospirillum. The presence of D. dehalogenans was confirmed by its partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. Conclusions Results of chemical sediment analyses demonstrated high loads of organochlorine compounds, particularly of PCDD/F. Several years after stopping the waste water discharge to Spittelwasser creek, this sediment remains a main source for pollution of the downstream river system by way of the ongoing mobilization of sediment during high floods. As indicated by our enzyme activity measurements, the decomposition potential for organic matter is low in organochlorine-rich sediment layers. In contrast, the comparably higher enzyme activities in less organochlorine-polluted sediment layers as well as the presence of physiologically active bacteria suggest a considerable potential for natural attenuation. Recommendations and Perspectives From our data we strongly recommend to explore the degradative capacity of sediment microorganisms and the limits for in situ activity towards specific sediment pollutants in more detail. This will give a sound basis for the integration of bioremediation approaches into general concepts to reduce the risk that permanently radiates from this highly contaminated sediment. Submission Editor: Dr. Henner Hollert (Henner.Hollert@urz.uniheidelberg.de)  相似文献   
8.
The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced.  相似文献   
9.
合成麝香是一类近十多年才引起人们关注的有机污染物.合成麝香广泛分布于环境中.难降解,易生物富集,对水生生物和人体均呈现一定的生物毒性.文章对某一化妆品厂生产车闯内、外及工厂外的上、下风向大气中多环麝香进行了定性定量分析,结果表明,除ATⅡ之外,大气中检测出了五种多环麝香,其中作为对照点的上风向多环麝香总浓度为5.43ng/m3,而工厂室内、外及下风向的多环麝香浓度范围为17.25~5543.4ng/m3;气固分配实验研究发现,超过68.43%的多环麝香分布于气相中.  相似文献   
10.
电感耦合等离子体质谱法在环境监测中的应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
针对ICP-MS技术的使用特点及其近年来在环境监测领域的应用进行综合阐述,并对ICP-MS技术的发展前景作出简单的评述。  相似文献   
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