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1.
湖北省2008年初低温雨雪冰冻过程气候特征分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
2008年初,湖北省出现了严重的低温雨雪冰冻灾害,直接经济损失高达110亿元以上,有必要对灾害期间的气候特征进行系统、科学的分析和总结。对湖北省76个气象站2008年1月12日~2月3日气温、降水(雪)、日照以及低温持续日数等要素进行时空间差异分析及历史与同期比较,并选取10个代表站历史上所有低温雨雪天气过程,对其过程持续低温日数、最长连续雨雪日数、过程极端低温进行比较分析。结果表明:(1)此次过程的平均气温异常偏低,该省大部为-1~-2℃,比常年同期偏低4~6℃,为各站历史同期最低,其中主要是最高气温异常偏低所致,但极端低温并不低;(2)降雪过程频繁,雨雪量异常偏多;(3)低温冰冻持续时间长,该省大部在16~22 d,位于历史第一;(4)日照异常偏少。持续而稳定的大气环流异常形势是湖北省大范围低温雨雪天气的直接原因。  相似文献   
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Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams adjacent to cornfields, streams where cows had unrestricted access, and reference locations without agriculture were compared to examine the effects of local land use and land use/land cover in the watershed. At each local site, macroinvertebrates and a variety of habitat parameters were measured upstream, adjacent, downstream, and farther downstream of the local land use. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate drainage basin area, land use/land cover percentages in each basin, and the distance from sample sites to the stream source. Three‐way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests with date, site type, and sampling location as main effects were used to explore differences in macroinvertebrate metrics using median substrate size, percent hay/pasture area, and stream depth as covariates. The covariates significantly improved model fit and showed that multiple contributing factors influence community composition. Local impacts were greatest at sites where cows had access, probably because of sedimentation and embeddedness in the substrate. Differences between the upstream and the adjacent and downstream locations were not as great as expected, perhaps because upstream recolonization was reduced by agricultural impacts or because of differences in the intensity or proximity of agriculture to riparian areas in the watershed. The results underscore the importance of both local and watershed factors in controlling stream community composition.  相似文献   
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Background, Aims and Scope Sediments of the Spittelwasser creek are highly polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals due to the discharge of untreated waste waters from the industrial region of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany over the course of more than one century. However, relatively few data have been published about the chloroorganic contamination of the sediment. This paper reports on the content of different (chloro)organic compounds with special emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), and chlorobenzenes. Existing concepts for the remediation of Spittelwasser sediment include the investigation of natural attenuation processes, which largely depend on the presence of an intact microbial food web. In order to gain more insight in terms of biological activity, we analyzed the capacity of sediment microflora to degrade organic matter by measuring the activities of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Furthermore, the detection of physiologically active bacteria in the sediment, particularly of those known for their capability to reductively dehalogenate organochlorine compounds, illustrates the potential for intrinsic bioremediation processes. Methods PCDD/F and chlorobenzenes were analyzed by gas chromatography(GC)/mass spectrometry and GC/flame ionization detection, respectively. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes were determined from freshly sampled sediment layers using 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-conjugated model compounds and kinetic fluorescence measurements. Physiologically active bacteria from different sediment layers were microscopically visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Specific bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Results and Discussion The PCDD/F congener profile was dominated by dibenzofurans. In addition, the presence of specific tetra and pentachlorinated dibenzofurans supported the assumption that extensive magnesium production was one possible source for the high contamination. A range of other chloroorganic compounds, including several isomers of chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chloro-phenyl)ethane (DDT), was present in the sediment. Activities of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes showed a strong decrease in those sediment layers that were characterized by high contents of absorbable organic halogen (AOX), indicating disturbed organic matter decay. Interestingly, an abnormal increase of cellulolytic enzyme activities below the organochlorine-rich layers was observed, possibly caused by residual cellulose from discharges of sulfite pulping wastes. FISH revealed physiologically active bacteria in most sediment layers from the surface down to the depth of about 60 cm, including members of Desulfitobacterium (D.) and Sulfurospirillum. The presence of D. dehalogenans was confirmed by its partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. Conclusions Results of chemical sediment analyses demonstrated high loads of organochlorine compounds, particularly of PCDD/F. Several years after stopping the waste water discharge to Spittelwasser creek, this sediment remains a main source for pollution of the downstream river system by way of the ongoing mobilization of sediment during high floods. As indicated by our enzyme activity measurements, the decomposition potential for organic matter is low in organochlorine-rich sediment layers. In contrast, the comparably higher enzyme activities in less organochlorine-polluted sediment layers as well as the presence of physiologically active bacteria suggest a considerable potential for natural attenuation. Recommendations and Perspectives From our data we strongly recommend to explore the degradative capacity of sediment microorganisms and the limits for in situ activity towards specific sediment pollutants in more detail. This will give a sound basis for the integration of bioremediation approaches into general concepts to reduce the risk that permanently radiates from this highly contaminated sediment. Submission Editor: Dr. Henner Hollert (Henner.Hollert@urz.uniheidelberg.de)  相似文献   
5.
电感耦合等离子体质谱法在环境监测中的应用   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
针对ICP-MS技术的使用特点及其近年来在环境监测领域的应用进行综合阐述,并对ICP-MS技术的发展前景作出简单的评述。  相似文献   
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We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral foot involvement (syndactyly I–II; cleft II–III; left cutaneous syndactyly III–IV). Mutation analysis of the p63 gene on chromosome 3q27 showed a missense mutation 577A→G (predicting amino acid substitution K193E) in the father. This mutation has not been reported so far in SHSFM but resembles the previously reported 580A→G (predicting amino acid substitution K194E) in a family with SHSFM. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
Summary The leaf gland volatile oils of ten sweet gale plants from a Scottish population were extracted in early summer. The results differed notably from reports of other populations in respect of the sesquiterpenes, -elemenone and germacrone, which were major components of the volatile oil. Three dihydrochalcones were also detected in the volatile oil. Variation within the population existed, particularly with respect to the relative importance of germacrone. Five plants were resampled in late summer and exhibited a marked reduction in -elemenone, a lesser reduction in germacrone and changes in the proportions of some monoterpenes.  相似文献   
8.
华北区域点冬季二次有机气溶胶特征与影响因素   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
为探明二次有机气溶胶(SOA)的污染特征和影响因素,本研究于2018年11月—2019年1月对华北区域点(德州市郊区点)细颗粒物(PM_(2.5))的化学组成进行了在线测量,并分析了PM_(2.5)中有机碳(OC)、元素碳(EC)和水溶性离子组分的污染特征及PM_(2.5)与气象要素之间的相关性.结果表明,观测期间德州PM_(2.5)污染严重,平均质量浓度为(115.6±24.6)μg·m~(-3);其中,有机碳和元素碳是PM_(2.5)的主要成分,平均质量浓度分别为(8.2±5.8)μg·m~(-3)和(2.6±2.2)μg·m~(-3),占PM_(2.5)总质量的7.1%和2.2%;PM_(2.5)与风速呈负相关,与相对湿度呈正相关,与气温的相关性较差,偏北风对PM_(2.5)浓度影响较大.同时,本研究利用EC示踪OC/EC比值法对PM_(2.5)中的二次有机碳(SOC)进行了估算,通过估算得到的SOC结果表明,华北区域点冬季SOC是OC的重要组成部分,平均浓度为(4.0±2.9)μg·m~(-3),占OC的45.7%,SOC在白天占比较高(62.7%),早晚由于有局地生物质燃烧影响,SOC占比降低,约占OC的42.7%.本研究还分析了SOC生成的影响因素,分析了德州市冬季O_3、含水量、酸度与SOC的相关性.结果表明,SOC受臭氧浓度影响,但在白天和夜晚表现出不同的相关关系,可能存在不同的生成机制.最后,利用ISORROPIA模型估算了颗粒物的含水量和酸度,发现SOC在高含水量和低含水量下存在不同的关系,高含水量更能促进SOC生成;在高含水量下SOC与H~+具有显著相关性,但在低含水量下则不相关,表明颗粒物含水量较高、H~+浓度较高情况下液相酸催化反应可能对SOC具有重要贡献.  相似文献   
9.
焦化废水处理过程中产生的焦油、污泥和结晶杂盐等固相物质,既有资源属性,又有污染特性,但目前缺乏基于能源、经济及环境影响方面的评估.本研究阐述了3类固相物质的形成机制,建立了质量当量计算及处置方法评价模型.以宝武集团韶关钢铁股份有限公司焦化厂(二期)焦化废水处理工程的A/O/H/O(厌氧/好氧/水解/好氧)流化床工艺作为考察对象,利用工程运行参数和水质统计数据进行固相物质的产量推算,结果发现,焦油、物化污泥、生物污泥(含水率为80%)和工业杂盐的产率分别为0.186、5.80、4.24和1.97 kg·m-3.通过处置方法评价模型明确了焦油焚烧、污泥热解、结晶杂盐分盐提纯后工业应用是最佳处置方案,在60 m3·h-1废水处理规模的固相物质处置过程中,每年约产生1177 MWh的能源,获得135.0万元的经济效益,排放627.0 t CO2,表明能源回收、经济效益和环境影响的协同存在.  相似文献   
10.
为了探讨Fas/FasL途径在氟暴露致PC12细胞凋亡中的作用及其机制,采用含20、40、80、160mg/L NaF培养液处理PC12细胞.结果表明,所有剂量NaF处理12、24、36、48h,PC12细胞活性升高;上述不同剂量NaF处理24h后,与对照组比,PC12细胞的活性氧水平、细胞凋亡率、细胞内Fas/FasL信号转导通路Fas和FasL、Caspase8、FADD、Caspase3基因和蛋白表达水平均呈显著上升(P < 0.05),而Bid基因和蛋白表达水平显著下降(P < 0.05),且呈氟暴露剂量依赖性.结果提示Fas/FasL途径在氟暴露致PC12细胞凋亡中起重要作用,其中FADD可能是Fas/FasL凋亡途径中的重要靶分子.  相似文献   
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