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排序方式: 共有1123条查询结果,搜索用时 281 毫秒
1.
The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically.  相似文献   
2.
基于GIS的南京市典型蔬菜基地土壤重金属污染现状与评价   总被引:16,自引:3,他引:13  
对南京市八卦洲蔬菜基地土壤中的铅、铬、铜和镉进行测定分析,利用不同的评价标准来评价其环境质量状况,同时借助GIS软件研究了污染指数的空间分布状况,并解析了其重金属污染的来源.结果表明,以自然背景值为评价标准,则蔬菜地土壤中的重金属都超过污染指标,其中镉为首要污染因子;以国标二级为评价标准,则除镉以外的三种重金属的单项污染指数值全都小于1,但其综合污染指数迭1.50,总体上属轻污染状况.南京化工因区、南京长江二桥和各种农业生产活动等可能是主要污染源.  相似文献   
3.
A hundred Enterococcus strains were isolated from seawater samples collected from coastal areas of Istanbul. Isolates were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests specified by Facklam and Collins. The species distribution was as follows Enterococcus faecalis (96%), Enterococcus gallinarum (3%) and Enterococcus solitarius (1%). The resistance of bacteria to both heavy metals (zinc [Zn], iron [Fe], cadmium [Cd], chrome [Cr], cobalt [Co]) and antibiotics (ampicillin 10 μg [AP], penicillin G 10 Units [PG], gentamycin 10 μg [GM], streptomycin 10 μg [S], chloramphenicol 10 μg [C], erythromycin 15 μg [E], kanamycin 30 μg [K], amikacin 30 μg [AK], nalidixic acid 30 μg [NA], and vancomycin 30 μg [VA]) was evaluated. None of the strains was resistant to VA. It was found that among the 100 isolates, those that exhibit resistance to antibiotics, particularly NA, S and K, were also resistant all the heavy metals tested. To our knowledge this is the first report focusing on determination of resistance of environmental enterococci found in Istanbul against heavy metals and antibiotics. Thus, combined expressions of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance may help to reinforce ecological and epidemiological studies and to determine the role of these strains in antibiotic and heavy metal resistance dissemination.  相似文献   
4.
Hashimoto Y  Sato T 《Chemosphere》2007,69(11):1775-1782
The use of a phosphorus amendment in altering Pb to a chemically less mobile phase is a promising strategy based on minimizing ecotoxicological risk and improving time and cost efficiency. This study evaluated crystalline and poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatite sorbents on removal of aqueous Pb in response to reaction time, solution pH, and Pb concentration. Batch experiments were conducted using a commercially-available crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), and two poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatites synthesized from gypsum waste (CHA) and incinerated ash of poultry waste (MHA). Poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatites had greater capacity for Pb removal from a solution with a wider pH range as compared to a crystalline hydroxyapatite. The maximum sorption capacity of Pb determined by the Langmuir model was 500 mg g−1 for CHA, 277 mg g−1 for MHA and 145 mg g−1 for HA. Removal of aqueous Pb by CHA was not dependent on solution pH, with a 98.8% reduction throughout the solution pH range of 2–9, whereas aqueous Pb removal by HA and MHA was pH-dependent with less removal in the neutral solution pH. Poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatites may provide an effective alternative to existing remediation technologies for Pb-contaminated sites.  相似文献   
5.
The Singrauli region in the southeastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India is one of the most polluted industrial sites of Asia. It encompasses 11 open cast coalmines and six thermal power stations that generate about 7,500 MW (about 10% of India’s installed generation capacity) electricity. Thermal power plants represent the main source of pollution in this region, emitting six million tonnes of fly-ash per annum. Fly-ash is deposited on soils over a large area surrounding thermal power plants. Fly-ashes have high surface concentrations of several toxic elements (heavy metals) and high atmospheric mobility. Fly ash is produced through high-temperature combustion of fossil fuel rich in ferromagnetic minerals. These contaminants can be identified using rock-magnetic methods. Magnetic susceptibility is directly linked to the concentration of ferromagnetic minerals, primarily high values of magnetite. In this study, magnetic susceptibility of top soil samples collected from surrounding areas of a bituminous-coal-fired power plant were measured to identify areas of high emission levels and to chart the spatial distribution of airborne solid particles. Sites close to the power plant have shown higher values of susceptibility that decreases with increasing distance from the source. A significant correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal content in soils is found. A comparison of the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility with heavy-metal concentrations in soil samples suggests that magnetic measurements can be used as a rapid and inexpensive method for proxy mapping of air borne pollution due to industrial activity.  相似文献   
6.
Few studies have been carried out to connect nutrient recovery as struvite from wastewater and sustainable utilization of the recovered struvite for copper and zinc immobilization in contaminated soil. This study revealed the effect of struvite on Cu and Zn immobilization in contaminated bio-retention soil in the presence of commonly exuded plant organic acids. The research hypothesis was that the presence of both struvite and organic acids may influence the immobilization of Cu and Zn in soil. The outcome of this research confirmed that more than 99% of Cu and Zn was immobilized in bio-retention filter media by struvite application. Water-soluble Cu and Zn concentrations of struvite treated soil were less than 1.83 and 0.86 mg/kg respectively, and these concentrations were significantly lower compared to the total Cu and Zn content of 747.05 mg/kg in the contaminated soil. Application of struvite to Cu- and Zn-contaminated soil resulted in formation of compounds similar to zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (Zn3(PO4)2?4H2O) and amorphous Cu and Zn phases. Struvite was effective in heavy metal remediation in acidic soil regardless of the presence of Ca impurities in struvite and the presence of plant organic acids in soil. Overall, this study revealed that struvite recovered from wastewater treatment plants has potential for use as an amendment for heavy metal remediation in contaminated bio-retention soil.  相似文献   
7.
水体重金属污染生物监测的研究进展   总被引:11,自引:3,他引:11  
综述了重金属的毒性效应和水体重金属污染的现状,介绍了利用水生藻类、浮游动物群落和底栖动物监测水体重金属污染的研究进展及发展趋势。  相似文献   
8.
苏南地区农村河塘底泥中重金属污染调查与评价   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
对苏南地区农村河塘底泥中重金属的污染物状况及分布特征进行了调查,分别在镇江、宜兴和常州采集了农村居民生活区、农田附近和养殖厂周围13个底泥样品,对底泥中的5种重金属Zn、Cu、Cd、Pb、Cr质量比进行了分析研究,并利用Hakason生态风险指数法评价了底泥中5种重金属对其所在水域的污染程度,对水域和周围环境造成的潜在风险影响.结果表明,苏南地区部分农村河塘底泥已受到轻度的重金属污染,部分采样点Cd、Cu和Zn已达到中度污染;不同类型底泥的重金属的污染程度趋势为:居民生活区>养殖厂周围>农田附近.  相似文献   
9.
钻井废泥浆中重金属化学形态及潜在生态效应评价   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
利用化学萃取法对江苏9个油田的不同类型钻井废泥浆的重金属化学形态分布特征进行调查分析,同时选用Hakanson的潜在生态危害指数法对钻井废泥浆中的重金属总量进行生态效应评价。结果表明,钻井废泥浆中Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd、Cr主要以残渣态和有机结合态为主,活性形态含量较低;采用Hakanson的潜在生态危害指数进行评价,发现Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd都属于轻微生态危害水平,而Cr多属于中等水平,产生潜在生态危害的重金属主要为Cr。  相似文献   
10.
徐州城市表层土壤中重金属的富积、分布特征与环境风险   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
研究了徐州城市表层土壤的21个样品中30种元素的富集与分布特征。结果表明,与我国土壤元素的背景值(算术平均值)相比,表层土壤中Zn、Cd、As、Hg、Sb、Sn、Ag等元素富集大;Fe、Se、Sc、Ba、Bi、Pb、Cu、Ni、Cr、Mn、Mo、Be、Ti、Al、Ga、Li、Co等元素的富集较小。污染元素的空间分布特征显示了Zn、Cu、Pb、Cd等元素主要与交通运输等扩散污染源相关,而元素As、Sb的空间分布主要与工业污染源(点源)有关。环境风险指数的计算结果表明,表层土壤中重金属污染具有较大的环境风险,其中属于中等环境风险级别以上的样品占近40%,而且高风险区域主要集中在钢铁厂和化机厂等工业区范围内。  相似文献   
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