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1.
上海市大气气溶胶中铂元素污染状况调查   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
为调查上海市大气气溶胶中铂元素的污染状况,用PM10-2型可吸入颗粒物采样器采集了上海市大气气溶胶样品,采样时间分别为2003-12~2005-12.用微波消解密闭系统消解样品,电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定了大气气溶胶中Pt的含量.分析结果表明,同清洁对照点((0.65±0.16)pg·m-3)相比,上海市中心区大气中Pt((1.69±0.93)pg·m-3)的污染是明显的;装有三元催化转化器的汽车尾气中Pt的含量均在100ng·g-1以上,远远高于大气气溶胶样品(人民广场平均值21.7ng·g-1);不同交通密度区Pt含量分析结果表明,Pt含量与交通密度紧密相关,这说明装有三元催化器的汽车尾气是气溶胶中Pt污染的主要来源;此外,上海市大气气溶胶中Pt呈现季节性变化,并受气象条件影响.同世界其它城市相比,上海市气溶胶中铂元素污染程度还较低,但是这种潜在的重金属污染应该引起重视.  相似文献   
2.
ABSTRACT

Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa have been used as medicine in Asia from Eastern Han Dynasty, and also used as traditional snack called “fulingjiabing” in Beijing, China. In this paper, 18 macro and trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) in both flesh and peel of Wolfiporia extensa from seven sites of Yunnan province in China were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The average recovery rates of certified reference materials for GBW10015 (spinach leaves) ranged from 90.5 to 113%, for GBW10028 (citrus leaves) from 92.8 to 106%, and for GBW07603 (bush branch and leaves) from 83.3 to 114.6%. Generally speaking, the concentration of all elements determined was at common level. The results of this survey indicate that mineral compositions in peel were higher than in flesh. In peel, the contents of investigated trace metals in mushroom samples were found to be in the range of 1,660–13,400 µg·g?1 dry matter (dm) for Fe and 29.6–710 µg·g?1 dm for Mn. The mean contents of Cr, Cu, Rb, V, and Zn in peel were between 10 and 20 µg·g?1 dm, followed by As, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sr with mean contents between 1 and 10 µg·g?1 dm, while Ag, Cd, and Cs had mean contents of <1 µg·g?1 dm. In flesh, the concentration of Fe was in the range of 54–900 µg·g?1 dm, and it was 1.5–49 µg·g?1 dm for Mn, followed by Ba, Cu, Rb, and Zn in the range of 1 to 10 µg·g?1 dm, while for Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Li, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and V it was <1 µg·g?1 dm. The concentration of toxic elements, such as As, Cd, and Pb, in both flesh and peel was below the permissible limits of World Health Organization. However, As and Pb contents in peel were higher than the limits permitted in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The results of principal component analysis showed that the flesh of Wolfiporia extensa from all the seven sites of the Yunnan province tend to cluster together, most probably because the origin of mineral elements in both flesh and peel is wood substrate (old and dead pine trees).  相似文献   
3.
电感耦合等离子体质谱法直接测定酱油中的铅   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
采用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法直接测定酱油样品中的痕量铅,样品无需前处理与稀释,直接进行测定.外标法绘制工作曲线、在线内标法校准基体效应,方法简便、快速.根据所建立的方法,对实验室间比对实验的酱油考察样品进行了分析,测定值与参考值吻合,相对标准偏差为2.5%.用加标回收实验评价了该方法的准确性,回收率为94.2%-102%,结果令人满意.  相似文献   
4.
将四乙氧基硅烷(TEOS)和N-(β-氨乙基)-γ-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷(AEAPTES)作为共聚前体,采用在毛细管内原位聚合的方式制备得到氨基功能化的有机-无机杂化整体柱,将其作为针式固相微萃取(SPME)介质,建立了现场分离富集环境水中As(V)的SPME方法,优化了有机-无机杂化整体柱富集As(V)的实验条件,并研究了整体柱对As(V)的吸附/洗脱性能和富集能力,实现了环境水样中As(V)的高效、快速、高选择性检测。  相似文献   
5.
介绍了国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项"基于质谱技术的全组分痕量重金属分析仪器开发和应用示范"项目在电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)研发、低温等离子体样品引入ICP-MS联用系统、ICP-MS监测汞的采样与预处理等方面的研究进展,并对ICP-MS应用发展及产业化前景进行了展望。  相似文献   
6.
建立了电感耦合等离子体质谱( ICP-MS)测定土壤中稀土元素的分析方法。采用HNO3+HF酸体系用微波消解对土壤样品进行处理,以混合内标( In、Bi)校正基体干扰和信号漂移,用ICP-MS对其中的16种稀土元素进行了测定。在优化的实验条件下,16种稀土元素标准曲线的相关系数r>0.9999,检出限为0.012 ng/ml~0.069 ng/ml,加标回收率为84.0%~110%,相对标准偏差(n=6)RSD均小于3.5%。该方法可用于四种不同类型土壤中稀土元素含量的测定。  相似文献   
7.
本文运用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法对不用类型水体(地下水、地表水、水库水和污水)中的10种重金属元素进行了测定和比对分析。结果显示地下水除钴元素可滤态与总量测定结果相当之外总量均大于可滤态、地表水总量均大于可滤态、水库水除锰元素和镍元素可滤态与总量测定值有较差别外其它8种元素总量与可滤态测定值均无明显差异、污水除钛元素外其余9种元素总量与可滤态测定值均无明显差异。其中,地表水与污水钛元素可滤态均未检出,总量测定值为检出限的1倍至3倍,结果可信。此结果证明对于本次用于检测的样品中的钛元素,全部来源于悬浮于水中的直径大于0.45μm的微粒上,其它元素无此特性。  相似文献   
8.
采用HNO3-HCl-HF-HClO4体系在全自动消解仪消解土壤样品,以50.0μg/L的Rh作内标,用电感耦合等离子体-质谱仪同时测定《土壤环境质量标准》的7种元素Cd、 As、Cu、 Pb、 Cr、 Zn、 Ni。结果表明,土壤标样的测定值与标准值吻合,各元素对应的检出限和相对标准偏差分别为: Cd:0.002 mg/kg和3.6%, As:0.05 mg/kg和5.5%, Cu:0.10 mg/kg和2.9%, Pb:0.18 mg/kg和4.7%, Cr:0.25 mg/kg和2.2%, Zn:0.40 mg/kg和3.4%, Ni:0.20 mg/kg和3.8%。该方法简便快捷,灵敏度高,重现性好。  相似文献   
9.
The development of predictive models for the long term evolution of nuclear waste glass requires the complete knowledge of the glass dissolution at the laboratory scale. A new approach was developed to determine the initial reaction during the first steps of experience, a new concept was developed, based on the combination of dynamic leaching test and the characterization of the altered materials. With this experimental set-up it is possible to follow in real time the glass alteration process at a fine temporal scale. The results put in evidence a singular behaviour of the lanthanide, shown by a concentration peak of La, Nd and Ce after 2 h and a quick decrease of their concentration measured on line in the solution during the leaching test. This fact is directly linked to the development of an interphase (altered layer which differs from the initial solid by its texture, structure and chemical composition) at the interface of the glass surface and the leaching solution. This work is an attempt to integrate the formation of the alteration products (here the interphase) during leaching into the dissolution mechanisms of a nuclear waste glass. A model is proposed and discussed.  相似文献   
10.
To estimate air pollution snow samples were collected in March 2001 at six sites in the vicinity of the Kostomuksha factory in Karelia. Seventy-two chemical elements and more than 200 individual organic compounds were identified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that the levels of Li, B, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Mn, Mo as well as hydrocarbons, phthalates and phenols exceeded the existing maximum allowable concentrations. A list of toxicants emitted with the factory exhausts and a list of priority pollutants for Kostomuksha were compiled. The impact of the exhausts of the Kostomuksha factory on the environment in Finland is relatively small. Electronic Publication  相似文献   
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