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1.
● Methods for estimating the aging of environmental micro-plastics were highlighted. ● Aging pathways & characterization methods of microplastics were related and reviewed. ● Possible approaches to reduce the contamination of microplastics were proposed. ● The prospect and deficiency of degradable plastics were analyzed. With the increasing production of petroleum-based plastics, the problem of environmental pollution caused by plastics has aroused widespread concern. Microplastics, which are formed by the fragmentation of macro plastics, are bio-accumulate easily due to their small size and slow degradation under natural conditions. The aging of plastics is an inevitable process for their degradation and enhancement of adsorption performance toward pollutants due to a series of changes in their physiochemical properties, which significantly increase the toxicity and harm of plastics. Therefore, studies should focus on the aging process of microplastics through reasonable characterization methods to promote the aging process and prevent white pollution. This review summarizes the latest progress in natural aging process and characterization methods to determine the natural aging mechanism of microplastics. In addition, recent advances in the artificial aging of microplastic pollutants are reviewed. The degradation status and by-products of biodegradable plastics in the natural environment and whether they can truly solve the plastic pollution problem have been discussed. Findings from the literature pointed out that the aging process of microplastics lacks professional and exclusive characterization methods, which include qualitative and quantitative analyses. To lessen the toxicity of microplastics in the environment, future research directions have been suggested based on existing problems in the current research. This review could provide a systematic reference for in-depth exploration of the aging mechanism and behavior of microplastics in natural and artificial systems.  相似文献   
2.
Over the past decades, the plastic production has been dramatically increased. Indeed, a category of small plastic particles mainly with the shapes of fragments, fibers, or spheres, called microplastics (particles smaller than 5 mm) and nanoplastics (particles smaller than 1 μm) have attracted particular attention. Because of its wide distribution in the environment and potential adverse effects to animal and human, microplastic pollution has been reported as a serious environment problem receiving increased attention in recent years. As one of the commonly detected emerging contaminants in the environment, recent evidence indicates that the concentration of microplastics show an increasing trend, for the reason that up to 12.7 million metric tons of plastic litter is released into aquatic environment from land-based sources each year. Furthermore, microplastic exposure levels of model organisms in laboratory studies are usually several orders of magnitude higher than those found in environment, and the microplastics exposure conditions are also different with those observed in the environment. Additionally, the detection of microplastics in feces indicates that they can be excreted out of the bodies of animal and human. Hence, great uncertainties might exist in microplastics exposure and health risk assessment based on current studies, which might be exaggerated. Policies reduce microplastic emission sources and hence minimize their environmental risks are determined. To promote the above policies, we must first overcome the technical obstacles of detecting microplastics in various samples.  相似文献   
3.
• Physical, chemical and biological methods are explored for MPs removal. • Physical methods based on adsorption/filtration are mostly used for MPs removal. • Chemical methods of MPs removal work on coagulation and flocculation mechanism. • MBR technology has also shown the removal of MPs from water. • Global policy on plastic control is lacking. Microplastics are an emerging threat and a big challenge for the environment. The presence of microplastics (MPs) in water is life-threatening to diverse organisms of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the scientific community is exploring deeper to find treatment and removal options of MPs. Various physical, chemical and biological methods are researched for MPs removal, among which few have shown good efficiency in the laboratory. These methods also have a few limitations in environmental conditions. Other than finding a suitable method, the creation of legal restrictions at a governmental level by imposing policies against MPs is still a daunting task in many countries. This review is an effort to place all effectual MP removal methods in one document to compare the mechanisms, efficiency, advantages, and disadvantages and find the best solution. Further, it also discusses the policies and regulations available in different countries to design an effective global policy. Efforts are also made to discuss the research gaps, recent advancements, and insights in the field.  相似文献   
4.
• 23 available research articles on MPs in drinking water treatment are reviewed. • The effects of treatment conditions and MP properties on MP removal are discussed. • DWTPs with more steps generally are more effective in removing MPs. • Smaller MPs (e.g.,<10 μm) are more challenging in drinking water treatment. Microplastics (MPs) have been widely detected in drinking water sources and tap water, raising the concern of the effectiveness of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in protecting the public from exposure to MPs through drinking water. We collected and analyzed the available research articles up to August 2021 on MPs in drinking water treatment (DWT), including laboratory- and full-scale studies. This article summarizes the major MP compositions (materials, sizes, shapes, and concentrations) in drinking water sources, and critically reviews the removal efficiency and impacts of MPs in various drinking water treatment processes. The discussed drinking water treatment processes include coagulation-flocculation (CF), membrane filtration, sand filtration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Current DWT processes that are purposed for particle removal are generally effective in reducing MPs in water. Various influential factors to MP removal are discussed, such as coagulant type and dose, MP material, shape and size, and water quality. It is anticipated that better MP removal can be achieved by optimizing the treatment conditions. Moreover, the article framed the major challenges and future research directions on MPs and nanoplastics (NPs) in DWT.  相似文献   
5.
环境微塑料可吸附有机污染物,并与有机污染物进行相互作用从而改变其毒性效应,增加微塑料的治理难度.本文就全球范围内微塑料与有机污染物的相互作用及毒性效应的研究进展进行综述,分析不同介质中微塑料与有机污染物的共存水平、吸附机理、影响因素以及联合毒性效应等.研究表明,微塑料可作为多环芳烃(PAHs)、多氯联苯(PCBs)、六...  相似文献   
6.
● Reduce the quantifying MPs time by using Nile red staining. ● The removal rate of MPs and PAEs in wastewater and sludge were investigated. ● MPs and PAEs were firstly analyzed during thermal hydrolysis treatment. ● The removal of PAEs from wastewater and sludge was mainly biodegradation. Microplastics (MPs) and plasticizers, such as phthalate esters (PAEs), were frequently detected in municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP). Previous research mainly studied the removal of MPs and PAEs in wastewater. However, the occurrence of MPs and PAEs in the sludge was generally ignored. To comprehensively investigate the occurrence and the migration behaviors of MPs and PAEs in MWTP, a series of representative parameters including the number, size, color, shape of MPs, and the concentrations of PAEs in wastewater and sludge were systematically investigated. In this study, the concentrations of MPs in the influent and effluent were 15.46±0.37 and 0.30±0.14 particles/L. The MP removal efficiency of 98.1% was achieved and about 73.8% of MPs were accumulated in the sludge in the MWTP. The numbers of MPs in the sludge before and after digestion were 4.40±0.14 and 0.31±0.01 particles/g (dry sludge), respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) analysis showed that the main types of MPs were polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS). Six PAEs, including phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), ortho dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ethyl) hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in the MWTP. The concentrations of total PAEs (ΣPAEs) in the influent and effluent were 76.66 and 6.28 µg/L, respectively. The concentrations of ΣPAEs in the sludge before and after digestion were 152.64 and 31.70 µg/g, respectively. In the process of thermal hydrolysis, the number and size of MPs decreased accompanied by the increase of the plasticizer concentration.  相似文献   
7.
Microplastics are widely found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. • Cleaning products and discarded plastic waste are primary sources of microplastics. Microplastics have apparent toxic effects on the growth of fish and soil plants. • Multiple strains of biodegradable microplastics have been isolated. Microplastics (MPs) are distributed in the oceans, freshwater, and soil environment and have become major pollutants. MPs are generally referred to as plastic particles less than 5 mm in diameter. They consist of primary microplastics synthesized in microscopic size manufactured production and secondary microplastics generated by physical and environmental degradation. Plastic particles are long-lived pollutants that are highly resistant to environmental degradation. In this review, the distribution and possible sources of MPs in aquatic and terrestrial environments are described. Moreover, the adverse effects of MPs on natural creatures due to ingestion have been discussed. We also have summarized identification methods based on MPs particle size and chemical bond. To control the pollution of MPs, the biodegradation of MPs under the action of different microbes has also been reviewed in this work. This review will contribute to a better understanding of MPs pollution in the environment, as well as their identification, toxicity, and biodegradation in the ocean, freshwater, and soil, and the assessment and control of microplastics exposure.  相似文献   
8.
综述了微塑料的主要来源、空间分布及我国水体和沉积物中微塑料的污染现状,以及微塑料与有机污染物的复合污染影响,并从海洋生物摄食微塑料、微塑料与污染物的复合生态风险、微塑料对水生生物的承载作用、微塑料在食物链中的传递及对人类健康的风险4个方面探讨了微塑料对海洋生物的影响。指出,采样方法和分析技术的标准化、微塑料-污染物复合体的毒性效应机制、微塑料对人类健康风险的评估是未来的重点研究方向。  相似文献   
9.
• Fate of microplastics in integrated membrane system for water reuse was investigated. • Integrated membrane system has high removal efficiency (>98%) for microplastics. Microplastics (>93%) were mainly removed through membrane bioreactor treatment. • Small scale fiber plastics (<200 μm) could break through reverse osmosis (RO) system. • The flux of microplastics maintained at 2.7 × 1011 MPs/d after the RO treatment. Rare information on the fate of microplastics in the integrated membrane system (IMS) system in full-scale wastewater treatment plant was available. The fate of microplastics in IMS in a coastal reclaimed water plant was investigated. The removal rate of microplastics in the IMS system reached 93.2% after membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment while that further increased to 98.0% after the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane process. The flux of microplastics in MBR effluent was reduced from 1.5 × 1013 MPs/d to 10.2 × 1011 MPs/d while that of the RO treatment decreased to 2.7 × 1011 MPs/d. Small scale fiber plastics (<200 μm) could break through RO system according to the size distribution analysis. The application of the IMS system in the reclaimed water plant could prevent most of the microplastics from being discharged in the coastal water. These findings suggested that the IMS system was more efficient than conventional activated sludge system (CAS) for the removal of microplastics, while the discharge of small scale fiber plastics through the IMS system should also not be neglected because small scale fiber plastics (<200 μm) could break through IMS system equipped with the RO system.  相似文献   
10.
● Small molecular chains formed on photo-aged polylactic acid microplastics (MPs). ● Oxygen-containing functional groups generated on photo-aged polyamide MPs. ● Photo-aging has the opposite influence on the imidacloprid adsorption on two MPs. ● Electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds were the main mechanisms. ● High pH value and low ionic strength increase the adsorption capacity. The photo-aging behavior of microplastics (MPs) in natural environment has become a global concern. The ultraviolet radiation has enough energy to change the polymer structure and physical-chemical properties of MPs. Less attention has focused on the interactions of the photo-aged polar and biodegradable MPs with organic pollutants. This work investigated the structural properties of aged polar polyamide (PA) MPs and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) MPs exposed to ultraviolet irradiation and their adsorption behavior and mechanism for neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI). The results showed that the MPs had extensive changes in surface morphology and chemical properties after photo-aging. The C–N bond of PA MPs was disrupted to form more carbonyl groups. The oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of aged PLA MPs were broken and generated relatively smaller molecules. The adsorption capacity of IMI on PA MPs decreased by 19.2 %, while the adsorption capacity of IMI on PLA MPs increased by 41.2 % after photo-aging. This depended on the natural structure of the MPs and their ability to absorb ultraviolet light. The electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions, and polar-polar interactions were the main adsorption mechanisms of IMI on MPs. High initial solution pH and low ionic strength favored the adsorption of IMI by altering charge distribution on the MPs surface. The formation of the humic acid-IMI complexes decreased the concentration of IMI in the water phase and further decreased the adsorption on MPs. These results are enlightening for a scientific comprehension of the environmental behavior of the polar MPs.  相似文献   
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