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排序方式: 共有33条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
近年来,由个人护理品及废旧塑料直接或间接产生的微塑料不断地在各种环境介质中被检出,且微塑料会对生态系统产生各种危害,因此对微塑料的研究受到越来越广泛的关注。阐述了微塑料在水体、沉积物、沙滩和生物体中的赋存情况,介绍了微塑料的采集与分离方法,以及定性与定量分析方法。指出微塑料对环境及生物体产生的危害,提出现阶段研究存在的主要问题,并对今后的研究方向进行了展望。  相似文献   
2.
This review summarizes and analyzes available data in the literature (mostly after 2000) on the occurrence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its main metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and chlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), in the environment of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Generally, the concentration levels of the sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, designated as DDTs thereafter, have not significantly declined since 1983. However, the composition of DDTs residues has changed with time. DDTs in soil, freshwater sediment and freshwater fish species were mainly residues from chronological use. There is evidence that new point sources, such as dicofol and anti-fouling paint, may have contributed DDTs to various environmental compartments. Risk assessment against existing criteria indicated that the levels of DDTs in water and some fish species may pose adverse effects to humans or wildlife, and those in sediment/soil may also cause negative impacts to the eco-environment of the PRD.  相似文献   
3.
The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from municipal WWTPs to surface waters as well as to make a first assessment of the impact of a discharge on surface waters chemical status. Comparing discharges and river pollution on a load basis, the influence of diffuse sources becomes obvious and therefore should also be taken into consideration in river management.  相似文献   
4.
We surveyed four different river systems in the Greater Montreal region, upstream and downstream of entry points of contamination, from April 2007 to January 2009. The studied compounds belong to three different groups: PPCPs (caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim), hormones (progesterone, estrone, and estradiol), and triazine herbicides and their metabolites (atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, simazine, and cyanazine). In the system A, B, and C having low flow rate and high TOC, we observed the highest detection frequencies and mass flows of PPCPs compared to the other compounds, reflecting discharge of urban contaminations through WWTPs and CSOs. However, in River D, having high flow rate and low TOC, comparable frequency of detection of triazine and their by-products and PPCPs, reflecting cumulative loads of these compounds from the Great Lakes as well as persistency against natural attenuation processes. Considering large differences in the removal efficiencies of caffeine and carbamazepine, a high ratio of caffeine/carbamazepine might be an indicative of a greater proportion of raw sewage versus treated wastewater in surface waters. In addition, caffeine appeared to be a promising indicator of recent urban fecal contaminations, as shown by the significant correlation with FC (R2 = 0.45), while carbamazepine is a good indicator of cumulative persistence compounds.  相似文献   
5.
Arsenic (As) is a notoriously toxic pollutant of health concern worldwide with potential risk of cancer induction, but meanwhile it is used as medicines for the treatment of different conditions including hematological cancers. Arsenic can undergo extensive metabolism in biological systems, and both toxicological and therapeutic effects of arsenic compounds are closely related to their metabolism. Recent studies have identified methylated thioarsenicals as a new class of arsenic metabolites in biological systems after exposure of inorganic and organic arsenicals, including arsenite, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), dimethylarsinous glutathione (DMAIIIGS), and arsenosugars. The increasing detection of thiolated arsenicals, including monomethylmonothioarsonic acid (MMMTAV), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV) and its glutathione conjugate (DMMTAVGS), and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTAV) suggests that thioarsenicals may be important metabolites and play important roles in arsenic toxicity and therapeutic effects. Here we summarized the reported occurrence of thioarsenicals in biological systems, the possible formation pathways of thioarsenicals, and their toxicity, and discussed the biological implications of thioarsenicals on arsenic metabolism, toxicity, and therapeutic effects.  相似文献   
6.
5083铝合金在3%NaCl溶液中的微区电化学特性   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
目的对5083铝合金在海水环境下的腐蚀行为进行深入的探索。方法在3%Na Cl溶液条件下,通过扫描振动电极技术(SVET)对5083铝合金的微小区域进行了原位测量,得到表面区域电位梯度的变化情况,结合交流阻抗测试,以及扫描电镜和能谱分析等方法,研究5083铝合金腐蚀的发生、发展机理。结果由于Zn和S等元素的偏析,腐蚀过程中,夹杂物等第二相周围优先溶解,致使铝合金基体裸露在溶液中。随着反应的持续形成点蚀,腐蚀电流使腐蚀区域的电位高于基体电位。浸泡3 h,最大电位差为15.72 m V,浸泡5 h,最大电位差达到20.06 m V。结论 5083铝合金在海水环境下夹杂物的周围优先溶解,然后是电位高于基体电位的第二相发生溶解,同时钝化膜破裂处也发生腐蚀,最终这些区域形成点蚀。  相似文献   
7.
采集南京不同水体9个点位的水样,经固相萃取后采用LC-MS/MS方法测定样品中10种抗抑郁类药物,结合风险熵值法评估其对不同营养级水生生物的风险。结果表明,南京水体中存在不同程度的抗抑郁类药物污染,质量浓度范围为未检出~9.4 ng/L;舍曲林、氟伏沙明和西酞普兰的检出率为100%,氟西汀的检出率为44.4%。风险评估结果表明,南京水体中抗抑郁类药物对不同营养级水生生物表现出低—中等风险;舍曲林和氟西汀对总风险的贡献率最高,需要重点关注。  相似文献   
8.
The presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment has become a topic of concern because of their potential adverse effects on human health and wildlife species. A total of 45 dewatered sewage sludge samples were collected throughout China and analyzed for 30 commonly consumed pharmaceutical residues. Ofloxacin was found to be the dominant contaminant with concentrations up to 24 760 μg kg−1, followed by oxytetracycline (5280 μg kg−1), norfloxacin (5280 μg kg−1) and ketoprofen (4458 μg kg−1). The concentration of pharmaceutical residues varied greatly depending on the operation conditions of wastewater treatment plants and sampling locations. Poor agreement was found between the predicted (calculation based on the annual consumption and coefficient of sludge water partition) and detected concentrations of the pharmaceuticals indicating that the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues was affected by various factors such as loading rates, sewage properties and the chemical properties such as the contribution from polar groups. National wide fate and ecotoxicity study is required for the development of control strategies.  相似文献   
9.
This study considers the implications and research needs arising from anticancer (also referred to as antineoplastic) drugs being released into the aquatic environment, for the entire therapeutic classes used: cytotoxic, cytostatic and endocrine therapy drugs.A categorization approach, based on French consumption amounts, allowed to highlight parent molecules and several metabolites on which further occurrence and ecotoxicological studies should be conducted.Investigations of consumption trends at a national and a local scale show an increase in the use of anticancer drugs between 2004 and 2008, thus leading to increased levels released in the environment. It therefore appears necessary to continue surveying their presence in surface waters and in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents.Furthermore, due to the rise of anticancer home treatments, most of the prescribed molecules are now available in town pharmacies. Consequently, hospital effluents are no longer the main expected entry route of anticancer drugs into the aquatic environment.Concerning ecotoxicological risks, current knowledge remains insufficient to support a definitive conclusion. Risk posed by cytotoxic molecules is still not well documented and it is not possible to conclude on their long-term effects on non-target organisms. To date, ecotoxicological effects have been assessed using standardized or in vitro assays. Such tests however may not be suitable for anticancer drugs, and further work should focus on full-life cycle or even multigenerational tests.Environmental significance (i.e. occurrence and effects) of cytostatics (protein kinases inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies), if any, is not documented. Protein kinases inhibitors, in particular, deserve further investigation due to their universal mode of action.Finally, concerning endocrine therapy drugs, molecules such as antiestrogen Tamoxifen and its active metabolites, could be of concern.Overall, to accurately assess the ecotoxicological risk of anticancer drugs, we discuss the need to break away from tests on isolated molecules and to test effects of mixtures at the low ng.l− 1 range.  相似文献   
10.
A few studies have reported the occurrence of monoethylmercury (CH3CH2Hg+) in the natural environment, but further verification is needed due to the lack of direct evidence and/or uncertainty in analytical procedures. Various analytical techniques were employed to verify the occurrence of CH3CH2Hg+ in soil of the Florida Everglades. The identity of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil was clarified, for the first time, by GC/MS. The employment of the recently developed aqueous phenylation-purge-and-trap-GC coupled with ICPMS confirmed that the detected CH3CH2Hg+ was not a misidentification of CH3SHg+. Stable isotope-tracer experiments further indicated that the detected CH3CH2Hg+ indeed originated from Everglades soil and was not an analytical artifact. All these evidence clearly confirmed the occurrence of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil, presumably as a consequence of ethylation occurring in this wetland. The prevalence of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil suggests that ethylation could play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg.  相似文献   
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