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排序方式: 共有842条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Abstract: Few studies exist that evaluate or apply pesticide transport models based on measured parent and metabolite concentrations in fields with subsurface drainage. Furthermore, recent research suggests pesticide transport through exceedingly efficient direct connections, which occur when macropores are hydrologically connected to subsurface drains, but this connectivity has been simulated at only one field site in Allen County, Indiana. This research evaluates the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in simulating the transport of a parent compound and its metabolite at two subsurface drained field sites. Previous research used one of the field sites to test the original modification of the RZWQM to simulate directly connected macropores for bromide and the parent compound, but not for the metabolite. This research will evaluate RZWQM for parent/metabolite transformation and transport at this first field site, along with evaluating the model at an additional field site to evaluate whether the parameters for direct connectivity are transferable and whether model performance is consistent for the two field sites with unique soil, hydrologic, and environmental conditions. Isoxaflutole, the active ingredient in BALANCE® herbicide, was applied to both fields. Isoxaflutole rapidly degrades into a metabolite (RPA 202248). This research used calibrated RZWQM models for each field based on observed subsurface drain flow and/or edge of field conservative tracer concentrations in subsurface flow. The calibrated models for both field sites required a portion (approximately 2% but this fraction may require calibration) of the available water and chemical in macropore flow to be routed directly into the subsurface drains to simulate peak concentrations in edge of field subsurface drain flow shortly after chemical applications. Confirming the results from the first field site, the existing modification for directly connected macropores continually failed to predict pesticide concentrations on the recession limbs of drainage hydrographs, suggesting that the current strategy only partially accounts for direct connectivity. Thirty‐year distributions of annual mass (drainage) loss of parent and metabolite in terms of percent of isoxaflutole applied suggested annual simulated percent losses of parent and metabolite (3.04 and 1.31%) no greater in drainage than losses in runoff on nondrained fields as reported in the literature.  相似文献   
2.
In spite of a worldwide reduction in the utilization of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), they are still a problem for the aquatic environment and human health. The Black Sea is still being polluted with persistent chemicals, including OCPs. Aquatic organisms (sprat, scad, bluefish, shad, belted bonito, goby, and black mussel) with different feeding behaviours were sampled on a seasonal basis from the Bulgarian region of the Black Sea, and the concentrations of 13 OCP residues were determined. Although many of the OCPs were not detected in the samples, in all samples 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was present mainly in the form of its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE). Only about 12% of the total DDT was present as the parent compound pp-DDT, which suggests that it was not being used recently in the region. The total DDT concentrations were generally below 150 μg kg-1 fresh weight, but higher levels—up to 354 μg kg-1 fresh weight—were also measured for fish species with a high fat content. Between-species differences were observed, even when the concentrations were presented on a fat-level basis. DDT concentrations did not show any significant changes over the 2-yr sampling period. Fish sampled in the northern areas of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast seemed to contain higher DDT levels than those from the southern areas, suggesting a major (historical) influence of the Danube River. For permanent monitoring purposes, the utility of Black Sea gobies and scad should be considered.  相似文献   
3.
The distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air and surface waters were monitored in Nairobi City using triolein-filled semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The SPMDs were extracted by dialysis using n-hexane, followed by cleanup by adsorption chromatography on silica gel cartridges. Sample analysis was done by GC-ECD and confirmed by GC–MS. Separation of means was achieved by analysis of variance, followed by pair-wise comparison using the t-test (p≤ 0.05). The total OCPs ranged between 0.018 – 1.277 ng/m3 in the air and <LOD – 1391.000 ng/m3 in surface waters. Based on the results, the means of Industrial Area, Dandora and Kibera were not significantly different (p≤ 0.05), but were higher (p≤ 0.05) than those of City square and Ngong’ Forest. The results revealed non-significant (p≤ 0.05) contribution of long-range transport to OCP pollution in Nairobi City. This indicated possible presence of point sources of environmental OCPs in the city. The water-air fugacity ratios indicated that volatilization and deposition played an important role in the spatial distribution of OCPs in Nairobi City. This indicated that contaminated surface waters could be major sources of human exposure to OCPs, through volatilization. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) determined from inhalation of atmospheric OCPs were 2.3745  ×  10?13 – 1.6845  ×  10?11 (adult) and 5.5404  ×  10?13 – 3.9306  ×  10?11 (child) in the order: Dandora > Kibera > Industrial Area > City Square > Ngong’ Forest. However, these were lower than the USEPA acceptable risks, 10?6 – 10?4. This study concluded that atmospheric OCPs did not pose significant cancer risks to the residents.  相似文献   
4.
采用聚氨酯泡沫-被动采样法(PUF-PAS)采集鸭儿湖地区大气样,研究典型污染源地区大气中有机氯农药(OCPs)组成、来源及土-气交换现状。鸭儿湖地区大气中OCPs主要组成为艾氏剂(Aldrin)、滴滴涕(DDTs)、六六六(HCHs)、六氯苯(HCB)、甲氧滴滴涕(Methoxychlor)和a-硫丹(α-Endosulfan),约占OCPs总量的84%。较高浓度Aldrin(平均浓度为161.25 pg/m3)广泛存在应引起高度重视。HCHs(平均浓度为89.64 pg/m3)和DDTs(平均浓度为92.29 pg/m3)普遍存在且含量高,污染程度比较明显。HCHs异构体中β-HCH高于α-HCH,远远高于γ-HCH和δ-HCH,说明HCHs经过长期降解已逐渐稳定下来;来源分析推测存在工业HCHs的使用或者受大气长距离传输影响。DDTs在各点位分布明显不同于HCHs,且各点位DDTs的六种组成均存在很大差别,可能由于点位地理位置以及农药使用情况导致;来源分析推测大气中DDTs主要来自历史残留。鸭儿湖地区OCPs土气交换研究表明,HCHs主要表现为从大气向土壤中沉降;DDTs在大多数点位源于土壤中历史残留的挥发,部分点位受到大气长距离传输影响。  相似文献   
5.
The Italian guidelines concerning the dumping of dredgingmaterials implies chemical, physical and microbiologicalcharacterisation of dumping sediments collected through aspecific sampling strategy.POP's such as PCB's and organochlorine pesticides, areconsidered as priority pollutants in all the InternationalConventions for the protection of the marine environment, inconsequence of their persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity.In the present article the concentrations and distribution ofPCB's and organochlorine pesticides in dredging sediments ofPiombino harbour (northern Thyrrenian sea) were investigates.The results showed high POP's concentrations in all the studiedareas. The maximum values were: 3.94 mg kg-1 dry weight for PCB's(IUPAC Nos. 28; 52; 101, 118; 137; 153; 180; 209); 2.04 mg kg-1 d.w.for HCH's (-, -, - and -hexachlorocyclohexane isomers); 0.28 mg kg-1 d.w. for DD's (DDT + DDE + DDD).Subsequently, the data related to each pollutant were treatedwith statistical tests, in order to verify how well the samplingstrategy is able to represent the distribution of contaminantsin the dredging area. Finally, management strategies werederived for the studied dredging sediments.  相似文献   
6.
A membrane extraction-gas chromatography method was developed fordetermination of organophosphorus pesticides and related compounds including methamidophos, DDVP, dimethoate, methyl parathion, parathion, thiophosphoric acid trimethyl ester, and thiophosphoramidic acid dimethyl ester in water samples. In thismethod, surface-modified acetic cellulose membranes were used to extract the target analytes in water samples, the extracted analytes were back-extracted into a small amount of methanol, andgas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to determine the concentrations of targetanalytes in the extracts. The recoveries obtained for thetarget analytes spiked into the water samples ranged from 66to 94%. The method detection limit for each target analyte was 0.05 g L-1. The method developed in this study had shown the advantages of being cheap, simple, fast, and reliable. It had been used successfully to determine the concentrations of target analytes in river water samples.  相似文献   
7.
Dredging is a very important procedure for harbor management. InItaly the guidelines for the offshore dumping of dredged materials are issued by the Ministry of Environment. Theydescribed a few steps of dredging activities, such as thesampling strategy, but do not deal with limits or guide-valuesfor the chemical, physical and biological composition of theresulting sediments. The quality of dredged materials is mainlydependent on the presence of inorganic and organic pollutants.In particular, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides are seen as a high priority inmarine environment by international organizations because oftheir persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity.In this article the presence of some PCBs and organo-chlorinatedpesticides in sediment samples collected from the harbor ofLivorno (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea) was investigated. Theconcentration of HCHs, Aldrin, Chlordanes, DDEs, DDTs, and PCBsin 12 representative sites ranged between <1 g kg–1and 95, 19, 32, 35, 107, and 111 g kg–1, respectively.The application of univariate and multivariate statisticaltechniques, such as linear regression analysis and principalcomponent analysis, to the experimental data showed a differentdistribution of PCBs in the two sediment layers. On thecontrary, the vertical distribution of the other investigatedpollutants was more homogeneous and affected by randomvariability. The multivariate approach was an important tool to establish more rational criteria for the management of dredged materials.  相似文献   
8.
测定了九种具不同结构特征的有机磷农药的消光系数、光量子产率和在环境中的光稳定性。探讨了分子结构与光稳定性的关系。结果表明,农药光稳定性主要取决于分子是否具有共轭结构及共轭程度大小;共轭程度愈大,农药的紫外光吸收能力愈强,光量子产率愈小。根据分子结构将有机磷农药分为六类。并以此法对30种结构较为简单的农药的光稳定性作了预测。  相似文献   
9.
防治白粉病的高效、低毒、低残留药剂研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过22种农药品种及混配剂防治玫瑰白粉病的筛选试验。毒性及残留性分析。以及进行成本比较。选出高效,低毒的较理想药剂是福星,敌力脱,黑星必克,几种混配剂也有较好的防效。且成本低。有一定的推广价值。而毒性较高的退菌特等及防效不理想的代森布等则不宜推广。  相似文献   
10.
北京市工业废水和城市污水中菊酯类农药残留分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
建立了基于18C固相萃取柱和气相色谱/电子捕获(GC/ECD)分析水体中环境激素类物质--菊酯类农药的分析方法,并对方法的回收率、灵敏度进行了评价,同时分析了北京市七类典型污染点源50个采样点位菊酯类农药的浓度,检出的菊酯类农药包括联苯菊酯、氰戊菊酯、氯氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯,其检出率都较低,低于22%.检出菊酯类农药的浓度范围是0.013~1.246μg/L.该方法对菊酯类农药的回收率达到67.7%~96.2%,检测限为0.010~0.015μg/L.溴氰菊酯在废水排放中的达标率为100%.  相似文献   
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