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1.
Column experiments were conducted to validate a screening model predicting the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) pole-treating oil on the vertical migration of its impurities, chlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). PCP pole-treating oil (15 mL d−1) and water (20 mL d−1) were added daily to the top of sand and organic soil columns during 35 d. Column soil samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of hydrocarbons and PCDD/Fs at several depths in the columns (0-30 cm) and their evolution in time (7, 14, 21 and 35 d).The model predicted a significant vertical migration of PCDD/Fs due to the presence of oil as a free phase and PCDD/Fs were found in the different column layers at concentrations consistent with model predictions (same order of magnitude). Measured PCDD/Fs concentrations are in total disagreement with literature data and with model prediction in the absence of oil free phase, which implies PCDD/F properties alone cannot be used to predict their fate in the current context: the influence of PCP pole-treating oil must be accounted for to properly explain their migration.  相似文献   
2.
五氯酚对环境污染及居民健康影响研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
中国长期以来使用五氯酚纳盐杀灭亡血吸虫的中间宿主──—钉螺.为评价它对环境的污染及居民健康危害,1990-1993年在我省开展了五氯酚环境污染及对居民健康影响研究.在研究区采集环境样品(空气、水体、土壤及底泥、蔬菜、肉、蛋、鱼等)共173份;生物材料(人血、尿)共457份,分析五氯酚浓度.结果在明,在五氯酚使用区,环境中PCP浓度稍高于对照区,而生物材料尿、血中PCP浓度明显高于对照区.全血胆碱脂酶活性用药区明显低于对照区,统计学分析有显著差异(P<0.001),证实了长期低剂量使用可造成环境及生物蓄积.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

This paper describes the development of apparatus suitable for direct supercritical fluid extraction of organics from water. Results are presented for the extraction of pentachlorophenol present in water at concentrations of the order of 0.1 ppm. The effect of changes in apparatus design and supercritical fluid flow rate on recovery are discussed.  相似文献   
4.

The coupling products (CPs), which were formed via the peroxosulfate catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) with iron(III)-tetrakis(sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (Fe(III)-TPPS) in the presence of hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin (HP-β -CD) or HP-γ -CD, were separated by ultrafiltration from the reaction mixture. When the percentages of chlorine species in the reaction mixture were calculated from the concentrations of organic chlorine in the reaction mixture and CPs, 10–25% of chlorine species in the reaction mixture was organic chlorine that was incorporated into CDs. Analyses of the CPs by pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) and 13C NMR showed that the PCP-derived products were covalently incorporated into the CDs. To evaluate the acute toxicity of the CPs, a Microtox® test was examined. Toxicities of the CPs were reduced slightly, compared to the controls (PCP alone and PCP + reaction blanks). In the reaction blanks, mesaconic acid (MA) moieties were detected as a result of the oxidation of CDs in the absence of PCP. Thus, factors in the toxicities, detected in the CPs, can be attributed to the oxidation products derived from CDs, such as MA, as well as the PCP-derived products incorporated into the CDs.  相似文献   
5.
采用固相萃取超高效液相色谱串联质谱法(SPE-UPLC-MS/MS)同时测定地下水中涕灭威、克百威、2,4滴和五氯酚等4种农药残留,通过优化试验条件,使方法在10.0μg/L~200μg/L范围内线性良好,检出限为0.003μg/L~0.006μg/L.标准溶液低、中2个质量浓度水平的加标回收率为84.1% ~98.8...  相似文献   
6.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere.  相似文献   
7.
In Japan, Ayase River is one of the most polluted rivers by PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, which are referred to as dioxins in this paper. The water samples of the river were collected once per month for a year, and dioxins were analyzed to examine the dioxin sources and their contributions to toxic equivalent (TEQ). The WHO-2006 TEQs ranged from 0.26 to 7.0 pg-TEQ L−1 and the average was 2.7 pg-TEQ L−1; eight of 12 samples exceeded the environmental quality standard in Japan (1.0 pg-TEQ L−1). The TEQ value was high during the irrigation period from May to August. The most part of the dioxins in the river water existed in suspended solids (SS) and it seemed that the river received water with highly-dioxin-contaminated SS in the irrigation period. The homologue profiles of the water samples suggested that the dioxins were influenced by pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP) formulations which were widely used as herbicides for the paddy fields in Japan. According to TEQ apportionment estimated by using indicative congeners, the TEQ was mainly contributed by PCP. Moreover, it was also shown that the TEQ contributions of PCP and CNP formulations increased along with the increase of the total TEQ and the TEQ contribution was dominated by these herbicides during the irrigation period. Therefore, it was concluded that the herbicides-originated dioxins run off from the paddy fields into the river during the irrigation period and increased the dioxins level in the river water. The result from the principal component analysis was consistent with these conclusions.  相似文献   
8.
采用液液萃取处理水样,用气相色谱-串联质谱法测定样品中五氯酚及其钠盐,通过优化测定条件,使方法在1.00μg/L~500μg/L范围内线性良好。检出限和定量限分别为1.00μg/L和5.00μg/L,空白水样五氯酚钠3个质量浓度水平的加标回收率为89.8%~98.4%,5次平行试验测定结果的RSD为5.5%~10.7%。  相似文献   
9.
刘和  李光伟  云娇  陈坚 《环境科学学报》2006,26(9):1445-1450
应用一种新的微生物分子生态学方法--末端限制性片段长度多态性(T-RFLP)法研究了好氧颗粒污泥和活性污泥在毒性化合物五氯酚(PCP)影响下的废水处理性能及其微生物种群结构的响应.结果表明,PCP浓度为30 mg·L-1时,颗粒污泥和活性污泥的COD去除率为38%、77%,与10~20 mg·L-1 PCP相比,分别下降了56%和15%.另外,PCP浓度为20 mg·L-1时,去除率为13%和58%,与10~20 mg·L-1 PCP相比,分别下降了86%和40%,说明PCP对氨氮去除率的影响大于对COD去除率的影响,对颗粒污泥的影响大于对活性污泥的影响.PCP对好氧颗粒污泥和活性污泥的细菌种群结构都产生了明显的影响,而且好氧颗粒污泥的变化程度大于活性污泥;PCP浓度为30 mg·L-1时,好氧颗粒污泥中的细菌种群数量明显下降,TRFs片段数从26下降到14,但活性污泥中的细菌种群数量基本不变,污泥中细菌种群结构的变化趋势与污泥的水处理性能的变化趋势相一致.  相似文献   
10.
毛细管柱气相色谱法测定水质五氯酚   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
用乙酸酐衍生,正己烷液一液萃取,毛细管柱气相色谱-电子捕获检测器对地表水、废水中五氯酚进行了测定,确定五氯酚浓度范围在5.0—500μg/L之间时,样品的测定精度、回收率及方法检出限均能满足要求。  相似文献   
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