首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   134篇
  免费   8篇
  国内免费   8篇
安全科学   20篇
废物处理   1篇
环保管理   31篇
综合类   35篇
基础理论   4篇
污染及防治   24篇
评价与监测   33篇
社会与环境   2篇
  2023年   1篇
  2021年   2篇
  2020年   3篇
  2019年   5篇
  2018年   1篇
  2016年   5篇
  2015年   4篇
  2014年   6篇
  2013年   10篇
  2012年   6篇
  2011年   10篇
  2010年   1篇
  2009年   11篇
  2008年   12篇
  2007年   7篇
  2006年   5篇
  2005年   9篇
  2004年   5篇
  2003年   6篇
  2002年   6篇
  2001年   9篇
  2000年   5篇
  1999年   5篇
  1998年   5篇
  1997年   1篇
  1996年   3篇
  1995年   3篇
  1994年   1篇
  1987年   2篇
  1982年   1篇
排序方式: 共有150条查询结果,搜索用时 218 毫秒
1.
采用气相色谱法测定油田区土壤中C_(10)~C_(40)的石油烃,通过优化加速溶剂萃取的条件,使方法在62 mg/L~3 100 mg/L范围内线性良好,方法检出限为4.8 mg/kg。用该方法测定石油区短期、中期、长期油井污染土壤样品,5次测定结果的RSD为1.3%~5.2%,加标回收率为84.8%~98.5%,有证标准样品测定结果在可信区间内。  相似文献   
2.
Petroleum lubricating oils, used throughout the economy, are distinct among petroleum products in their capacity to be recovered and recycled at the end of their useful life. Used lubricating oil is regulated at the state and federal level because of concerns about environmental impacts arising from improper disposal, although rates of recovery are not known. We present a material flow analysis of lubricants through California's economy in the years 2007–2012. We introduce a novel technique for computing aggregate waste generation from a collection of hazardous waste manifest records, and apply it in order to determine a recovery rate for used oil and to estimate the quantity of oil managed informally in the state. The records also offer a detailed view of the fate of used oils after they are recovered. We find that around 62% of lubricants are recoverable at end of life, of which 70–80% is being recovered. This rate shows a slight downward trend. If the trend is accurate, measures should be taken to improve the performance of the used oil management system. Policy opportunities exist to reduce the quantity of oil managed informally through improving access to responsible used oil management methods. These include increasing the collection of used oil from industrial sources as well as “do it yourself” oil changes, expanding in-state reprocessing capacity, and promoting increased out-of-state reprocessing of used oil. Our methods introduce new possibilities to make use of direct observation in material flow analysis, potentially improving data availability and quality and increasing the relevance of material flow methods in policy applications.  相似文献   
3.
The current risk management approach for the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry came into effect in 2001 and has been stable with minor changes for 15 years. Relatively few new installations were slated for development until quite recently, and several new projects have been started in the last few years. The paper considers the risk management approach in the pre-FEED phase and builds on two case studies selected from the most recent cases. These case studies have been evaluated with respect to how uncertainties are considered in the early phase, based on the submission of the Plan for Development and Operation, their evaluations by authorities and the supporting documents. Both case studies involve new concepts for which there is no experience from similar environments and/or water depths. In spite of what could have been expected, the case studies conclude that uncertainties have not been in focus at all during concept development. This appears to be definitely the case for the licensees, but also to be the case for the authorities. Some suggestions are presented for what could have been considered by the licensees and authorities.  相似文献   
4.
In 1993, a paper was published by Christensen and Larsen that offered a method for determining the age of diesel oil spills in soil (Christensen and Larsen, 1993 Ground Water Mount. R . Fall , 142-149). It presented an empirical time-based model of the degradation of diesel fuel in soils using chemical data gathered at petroleum release sites in Denmark and the Netherlands. Now, evaluation of the validity of the application of this work to subsurface petroleum releases in other countries remains. In the U.S.A., investigations assessing date(s) of release of diesel fuel in soils, e.g. age dating of subsurface petroleum contamination, have considerable interest. Litigation-driven scientific investigations with accompanying expert testimony in a court of law are underway. The number of instances where application of the Christensen and Larsen empirical time-based model to petroleum-contaminated properties is growing in the U.S.A. This paper presents two case studies which evaluate the applicability of the Christensen and Larsen empirical time-based model to petroleum-contaminated properties in general. It illustrates the approach using gas chromatographic data from two recently-completed projects evaluating the applicability of the Christensen and Larsen model to a No. 2 fuel oil/diesel fuel surface spill in the U.S.A. Results showed that the application of the model to petroleum-contaminated soils was scientifically valid, provided its applicability was evaluated using hypothesis testing for specific changes in the characteristics of the petroleum hydrocarbon distribution in a number of soil samples collected over time at one site. The paper offers observations on the application of the Christensen and Larsen model to petroleum found in the light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) phase and groundwater.  相似文献   
5.
Obtaining knowledge about factors affecting health, safety and environment (HSE) is of major interest to the petroleum industry, but there is currently a severe shortage of relevant studies. The aim of this study was to examine the relative influence of offshore installation (local working environment) and company belonging on employees’ opinions concerning occupational health and safety. We analyzed data from a safety climate survey answered by 4479 Norwegian offshore petroleum employees in 2005 on the dimensions “Safety prioritisation”, “Safety management and involvement”, “Safety versus production”, “Individual motivation”, “System comprehension” and “Competence” using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), effect size and mixed model. The companies differed significantly for “Safety prioritisation”, “Safety versus production”, “Individual motivation”, “System comprehension” and “Competence”. The local offshore installation explained more of the safety climate than the company they were employed in or worked for did.  相似文献   
6.
Remodelling works are frequent in harbour areas, given that they must adapt to rapidly changing market requirements. Depending on their nature (construction, demolition, etc.), these works may be carried out during long periods of time and thus exert a significant impact on the air quality at the harbours and their surroundings. The air quality at the Valencia harbour was studied during an enlargement project. Four sampling stations aimed to cover the major dust-emitting activities in the harbour. In addition, a sampling campaign was carried out to collect dust materials at their emission sources (e.g., loading and unloading of clinker and petroleum coke, as well as the enlargement works). Differences obtained between PM levels at the monitoring sites were correlated with the distance between sampling stations and enlargement works and/or harbour operations, as well as with the preferential wind direction. In all cases, the days with the highest PM_10 levels were linked to wind directions coinciding with the location of the enlargement works or the clinker and petroleum coke stocks. Classic source apportionment methodologies (PCA and CMB) were applied to the data, but their interpretation was complex due to the similar chemical signatures of PM originating from direct and fugitive emissions from stocked materials (e.g., clinker), and the enlargement works. To overcome this difficulty, a novel non-statistical approach was used to obtain quantitative estimations of the contributions from sources (petroleum coke and clinker), based on the correlation between specific PM components (e.g., carbonaceous species) and source tracers (e.g., V). Finally, a qualitative test using phenolphthalein was devised to identify the presence of clinker on the filters, which provided positive results. This novel tracer approach is thus recommended for harbour authorities.  相似文献   
7.
In situ sequential treatment of a mixed contaminant plume   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Groundwater plumes often contain a mixture of contaminants that cannot easily be remediated in situ using a single technology. The purpose of this research was to evaluate an in situ treatment sequence for the control of a mixed organic plume (chlorinated ethenes and petroleum hydrocarbons) within a Funnel-and-Gate. A shallow plume located in the unconfined aquifer at Alameda Point, CA, was found to contain up to 218,000 μg/l of cis-1,2 dichloroethene (cDCE), 16,000 μg/l of vinyl chloride (VC) and <1000 μg/l of 1,1 dichloroethene (1,1 DCE), trans-1,2 dichloroethene (trans-1,2 DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) concentrations were <10,000 μg/l. Contaminated groundwater was funneled into a gate, 3.0 m wide, 4.5 m long and 6.0 m deep (keyed into the underlying aquitard) where treatment occurred. The initial gate segment consisted of granular iron, for the reductive dechlorination of the higher chlorinated ethenes. The second segment, the biosparge zone, promoted aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and any remaining lesser-chlorinated compounds, stimulated by dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) additions via an in situ sparge system (CO2 was used to neutralize the high pH produced from reactions in the iron wall). Groundwater was drawn through the gate by pumping two wells located at the sealed, downgradient, end. Over a 4-month period an estimated 1350 g of cDCE flowed into the treatment gate and the iron wall removed 1230 g, or 91% of the mass. The influent mass of VC was 572 g and the iron wall removed 535 g, corresponding to 94% mass removal. The other chlorinated ethenes had significantly lower influent masses (3 to 108 g) and the iron wall removed the majority of the mass resulting in >96% mass removal for any of the compounds. In spite of these high removal percentages, laboratory column tests indicated that at these levels of chlorinated contaminants, surface saturation of the iron grains likely contributed to lower than expected reaction rates. In the biosparge zone, mass removal of cDCE appeared to occur predominantly by biodegradation (65%) with volatilization (35%) being an important secondary process. The dominant removal process for VC was volatilization (70%) although significant biodegradation was also indicated (30%). Laboratory microcosm results confirmed the potential for aerobic biodegradation of cDCE and VC. When average influent field concentrations for cDCE and VC were 220,000 and 46,000 μg/l, respectively, the sequential treatment unit removed 99.6% of the total mass and when the influent concentrations decreased to 26,000 and 19,000 μg/l for cDCE and VC, respectively, >99.9% removal within the treatment gate was attained. BTEX compounds were found to be significantly retarded in the iron treatment zone. Although they did eventually break through the granular iron, and into the gravel transition zone, none of these compounds was detected in the biosparge zone. No noticeable interferences between the anaerobic (reductive) and aerobic parts of the system occurred during testing. The results of this experiment show that in situ treatment sequences are viable, although further work is needed to optimize performance.  相似文献   
8.
陆上石油勘探开发企业危害辨识与风险控制浅析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
本文针对陆上石油勘探开发企业作业过程中存在的主要风险,分析了各作业环节包括的主要危害因素,提出风险控制的方法,以确保有效控制石油勘探开发作业过程中的各类风险.  相似文献   
9.
The petroleum industry has traditionally generated substantial revenues for governments. Where governmental power is divided, as in federations like Canada and Australia, a junior level of government normally collects royalties while the senior level levies a variety of imposts (income tax, export duties, excises on production). The combination of recent sharp reductions in prices, more price volatility and an era of freer markets has subjected existing tax and royalty systems to severe strain and has shifted attention to the design of fiscal systems that are more profit- sensitive. For the royalty element, interest focuses on net value royalties (NVRs). This paper deals with the nature and problems of NVRs. It proceeds by looking first at the application of resource rent royalties in Australia. It then focuses on recent megaproject royalty arrangements in Alberta and evaluates the degree to which Alberta's current royalty system is profit- sensitive. Problems associated with NVRs are discussed in the fourth section; concluding remarks are made in the last section.  相似文献   
10.
A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia’s largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. “”, 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227–231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279–282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958–2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029–2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450–455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387–396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659–668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450–455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for fixing standards. Also, since it acts as precursor to green house gas, the data would be useful for climate change assessments. The objective of this article is to find out the concentration of PAHs in particulate matter around petroleum refinery and compare with their concentrations in major Indian urban centers.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号