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1.
Urbanization and mass movement of the population from rural areas and small cities to megacities have led to environmental, economic, and social problems in Iran. In dealing with these challenges, assessing resource and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) is considered an effective method to leverage space and capital to achieve sustainable development. This study aimed to rank the provincial RECC in Iran. Toward this purpose, environmental indices were generated from remotely sensed and statistical census data. Then, the provinces were scored in terms of environmental, economic, and infrastructural carrying capacities, and RECC using the mean variance analysis method. Results demonstrated that in most areas, there is no relationship between economic and infrastructural capacities and development. Statistically, a correlation coefficient of −0.53 between economic and environmental carrying capacities indicated excessive use of environmental capacities. Moreover, the spatial distribution pattern of environmental, economic, and infrastructural carrying capacity was entirely heterogeneous between the provinces; there was a northeast–southwest pattern in terms of infrastructural capacity and an economic pattern from north to south. The distribution pattern of RECC is most consistent with the environmental capacity, pointing at the high weight of the indicators of the RECC model. In conclusion, this research offers a new vision for policymakers and provides a theoretical and applicable framework for implementing sustainable strategies in land-use planning. It is recommended that the RECC concept and tools can be used not only for planning but also for measuring the efficiency of spatial development programs and establishing land balances in the region.  相似文献   
2.
● China has pledged ambitious carbon peak and neutrality goals for mitigating global climate change. ● Major challenges to achieve carbon neutrality in China are summarized. ● The new opportunities along the pathway of China’s carbon neutrality are discussed from four aspects. ● Five policy suggestions for China are provided. China is the largest developing economy and carbon dioxide emitter in the world, the carbon neutrality goal of which will have a profound influence on the mitigation pathway of global climate change. The transition towards a carbon-neutral society is integrated into the construction of ecological civilization in China, and brings profound implications for China’s socioeconomic development. Here, we not only summarize the major challenges in achieving carbon neutrality in China, but also identify the four potential new opportunities: namely, the acceleration of technology innovations, narrowing regional disparity by reshaping the value of resources, transforming the industrial structure, and co-benefits of pollution and carbon mitigation. Finally, we provide five policy suggestions and highlight the importance of balancing economic growth and carbon mitigation, and the joint efforts among the government, the enterprises, and the residents.  相似文献   
3.
梳理了高校实验室环境-安全-健康准入制度包含的管理内容,从人员管理、设备管理、试剂管理、实验环境管理角度进行了分析。根据现有实验室安全信息化系统运行情况,探讨了将实验室安全信息化系统与实验室信息化系统、设备管理信息化系统进行数据融合和功能优化的要点,重点分析了设备采购及管理系统、实验室安全教育与考试系统、实验室安全检查系统、试剂管理平台、实验室门禁管理系统在功能上的内在关联,从而通过试剂管理平台、实验室门禁控制系统、设备采购系统实现实验室环境-安全-健康准入制度的强制执行。研究发现,高校与环境监测实验室、院系实验室安全管理部门联合促进实验室安全信息化系统、实验室信息化系统、设备管理信息化系统的数据共享与功能升级,可以丰富实验室安全准入制度的内涵和管理手段,加强实验室安全准入制度的强制执行力,提高实验室安全管理效率。  相似文献   
4.
近年来,黑臭水体整治已经成为各级政府的重要工作内容。为更好地开展黑臭水体筛查和监管工作,提出基于多旋翼无人机搭载多光谱相机的遥感监测方案,尝试采用影像特征变换结合面向对象分类方法提取黑臭水体的遥感信息。结果表明:(1)无人机影像上地物具有更加丰富的色彩和纹理;(2)与主成分变换和纹理分析方法相比,光谱指数对典型地物具有较好的判别能力;(3)采用标准最邻近分类法提取城市水环境信息,能够获得较高分类精度。  相似文献   
5.
为了完善现有煤与瓦斯共采技术,创新煤与瓦斯共采方法,对错层位巷道布置下的煤与瓦斯共采系统展开研究,利用相似模拟试验,分析错层位巷道布置覆岩运动情况,预测其开采围岩裂隙发育和瓦斯运移形式,提出了创新煤与瓦斯共采技术构想。研究结果表明:采空区覆岩三带高度随接续工作面的增加而增大,相邻采空区垮落矸石压实区呈现“O-L-O”形变化,多个相邻采空区覆岩出现大“O”形圈裂隙带;相邻采空区内瓦斯可实现相互运移,大“O”形圈裂隙带内赋存大量瓦斯气体;研究提出了地面钻井抽采瓦斯、走向高位瓦斯抽采巷和外错尾巷穿层钻孔3种煤与瓦斯共采技术,比传统巷道布置情况下的煤与瓦斯共采技术在安全、经济等方面更具优势。  相似文献   
6.
Conservation conflicts are gaining importance in contemporary conservation scholarship such that conservation may have entered a conflict hype. We attempted to uncover and deconstruct the normative assumptions behind such studies by raising several questions: what are conservation conflicts, what justifies the attention they receive, do conservation-conflict studies limit wildlife conservation, is scientific knowledge stacked against wildlife in conservation conflicts, do conservation-conflict studies adopt a specific view of democracy, can laws be used to force conservation outcomes, why is flexibility needed in managing conservation conflicts, can conservation conflicts be managed by promoting tolerance, and who needs to compromise in conservation conflicts? We suggest that many of the intellectual premises in the field may defang conservation and prevent it from truly addressing the current conservation crisis as it accelerates. By framing conservation conflicts as conflicts between people about wildlife or nature, the field insidiously transfers guilt, whereby human activities are no longer blamed for causing species decline and extinctions but conservation is instead blamed for causing social conflicts. When the focus is on mitigating social conflicts without limiting in any powerful way human activities damaging to nature, conservation-conflict studies risk keeping conservation within the limits of human activities, instead of keeping human activities within the limits of nature. For conservation to successfully stop the biodiversity crisis, we suggest the alternative goal of recognizing nature's right to existence to maintenance of ecological functions and evolutionary processes. Nature being a rights bearer or legal person would imply its needs must be explicitly taken into account in conflict adjudication. If, even in conservation, nature's interests come second to human interests, it may be no surprise that conservation cannot succeed.  相似文献   
7.
• Isotope dilution method was developed for the determination of 27 PPCPs in water. • The established method was successfully applied to different types of water samples. • The correction effect of corresponding 27 ILSs over 70 d was investigated. • Benefit of isotopic dilution method was illustrated for three examples. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a unique group of emerging and non-persistent contaminants. In this study, 27 PPCPs in various water samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE), and determined by isotope dilution method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem triple quadruple mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). A total of 27 isotopically labeled standards (ILSs) were applied to correct the concentration of PPCPs in spiked ultrapure water, drinking water, river, effluent and influent sewage. The corrected recoveries were 73%–122% with the relative standard deviation (RSD)<16%, except for acetaminophen. The matrix effect for all kinds of water samples was<22% and the method quantitation limits (MQLs) were 0.45–8.6 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied on environmental water samples. The SPE extracts of spiked ultrapure water, drinking water, river and wastewater effluent were stored for 70 days, and the ILSs-corrected recoveries of 27 PPCPs were obtained to evaluate the correction ability of ILSs in the presence of variety interferences. The recoveries of 27 PPCPs over 70 days were within the scope of 72%–140% with the recovery variation<37% in all cases. The isotope dilution method seems to be of benefit when the extract has to be stored for long time before the instrument analysis.  相似文献   
8.
过去40年来我国经济建设取得了举世瞩目的成绩,但是也留下了很多生态环境问题。目前我国经济已经由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段,但高质量发展缺乏指标体系和具体路径。“三线一单”是一套生态环境分区管控体系,其主要目的是统筹地方社会经济与环境保护的矛盾,促进经济结构转型。四川省在“三线一单”编制过程中,通过建立指标体系从生态环境保护的角度为地区高质量发展提供了量化标准,通过差异化管控要求为地区高质量发展提供了具体路径,从生态环境角度助力高质量发展。  相似文献   
9.
魏威  王辉 《环境与发展》2020,(2):208-209
环境统计工作是环境保护工作中的基础,是各级政府和环境保护行政主管部门制定环境保护政策和计划、加强环境监督管理和污染防治的重要依据。本文结合日常工作经验,就目前基层环境统计工作中存在的问题进行探讨,并提出一些建议。  相似文献   
10.
Thermal runaway hazard assessment provides the basis for comparing the hazard levels of different chemical processes. To make an overall evaluation, hazard of materials and reactions should be considered. However, most existing methods didn't take the both into account simultaneously, which may lead the assessment to a deviation from the actual hazard. Therefore, an integrated approach called Inherent Thermal-runaway Hazard Index (ITHI) was developed in this paper. Similar to Dow Fire and Explosion Index(F&EI) function, thermal runaway hazard of chemical process in ITHI was the product of material factor (MF) and risk index (RI) of reaction. MF was an indicator of material thermal hazards, which can be determined by initial reaction temperature and maximum power density. RI, which was the product of probability and severity, indicated the risk of thermal runaway during the reaction stage. Time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions and criticality classes of scenario were used to indicate the runaway probability of the chemical process. Adiabatic temperature rise and heat of the desired reaction and secondary reaction were used to determine the severity of runaway reaction. Finally, predefined hazard classification criteria was used to classify and interpret the results obtained by this method. Moreover, the method was validated by case studies.  相似文献   
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