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1.
Guanting Reservoir,one of the drinking water supply sources of Beijing,suffers from water eutrophication.It is mainly supplied by Guishui River.Thus,to investigate the reasons of phosphorus(P)loss and improve the P management strategies in Guishui River watershed are important for the safety of drinking water in this region.In this study,a Revised Field P Ranking Scheme(PRS)was developed to reflect the field vulnerability of P loss at the field scale based on the Field PRS.In this new scheme,six factors are included, and each one was assigned a relative weight and a determination method.The affecting factors were classified into transport factors and source factors,and,the standards of environmental quality on surface water and soil erosion classification and degradation of the China were used in this scheme.By the new scheme,thirty-four fields in the Guishui River were categorized as"low","medium"or"high"potential for P loss into the runoff.The results showed that the P loss risks of orchard and vegetable fields were higher than that of corn and soybean fields.The source factors were the main factors to affect P loss from the study area.In the study area,controlling P input and improving P usage efficiency are critical to decrease P loss.Based on the results,it was suggested that more attention should be paid on the fields of vegetable and orchard since they have extremely high usage rate of P and high soil test of E Compared with P surplus by field measurements,the Revised Field PRS was more suitable for reflecting the characteristics of fields,and had higher potential capacity to identify critical source areas of P loss than PRS.  相似文献   
2.
Good natural resource management is scarce in many remote tropical regions. Improved management requires better local consultation, but accessing and understanding the preferences and concerns of stakeholders can be difficult. Scoring, where items are numerically rated in relation to each other, is simple and seems applicable even in situations where capacity and funds are limited, but managers rarely use such methods. Here we investigate scoring with seven indigenous communities threatened by forest loss in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We aimed to clarify the forest’s multifaceted importance, using replication, cross-check exercises, and interviews. Results are sometimes surprising, but generally explained by additional investigation that sometimes provides new insights. The consistency of scoring results increases in line with community literacy and wealth. Various benefits and pitfalls are identified and examined. Aside from revealing and clarifying local preferences, scoring has unexplored potential as a quantitative technique. Scoring is an underappreciated management tool with wide potential.  相似文献   
3.
Sui Q  Wang B  Zhao W  Huang J  Yu G  Deng S  Qiu Z  Lu S 《Chemosphere》2012,89(3):280-286
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the water environment all over the world. Considering a large number of pharmaceuticals used, it is crucial to establish a priority list of pharmaceuticals that should be monitored and/or treated first. In the present study, we developed a ranking system based on the pharmaceutical consumption, removal performance in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and potential ecological effects, and applied to the situation of China. 39 pharmaceuticals, which had available consumption data and also been reported previously in the WWTPs of China, were selected as candidate pharmaceuticals. Among them, seventeen pharmaceuticals were considered as priority pharmaceuticals, out of which, erythromycin, diclofenac acid and ibuprofen, had the high priority. Compared with other literatures, we found that some pharmaceuticals given concerns to globally should also be included in the priority list in China; while some pharmaceuticals, not mentioned in other literatures, such as cefalexin, ketoconazole, should be also given prior consideration in China. Among all the therapeutic classes, antibiotics, which were grossly abused in China, contributed the most to the priority pharmaceuticals. However, priority antibiotics accounted for only 32% of candidate antibiotics, while 71% and 100% of the candidate anti-inflammatory and antilipidemic respectively were identified as the priority pharmaceuticals, indicating that antibiotics might be overanxiously considered in the previous studies on their behaviors in the WWTPs of China.  相似文献   
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纳污湿地上覆水中重金属的监测及评价   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
以武河湿地为研究区域采集上覆水水样,采用ICP-AES法测定湿地水体中重金属的含量,参照有关标准用水质标准级别法对水中重金属污染情况进行了评价。结果表明:武河湿地中重金属Hg污染十分严重,各采样点均有分布且水质属劣Ⅴ类。重金属元素Cd污染并不严重,总体水质较好。重金属元素As、Cr、Cu、Pb在武河湿地中污染较轻近乎无污染,水质为Ⅰ类。由于重金属Hg的污染十分严重所以研究区内综合质量等级在4以上,水质为Ⅴ类和劣Ⅴ类,污染严重。  相似文献   
6.
The numerous formulated products which are introduced to the market consist of chemical ingredients that may cause various safety and health hazards to the consumers. Therefore, it is extremely important to practice a systematic methodology to formulate products with acceptable safety and health performances. This work presents an index-based methodology to assess the safety and health hazards of the ingredients during the early formulation stage of product design. Hence, new inherent safety and health sub-indexes are introduced to improve the current safety and health hazards that are needed in formulated product design. The inherent safety and health sub-indexes are assigned with scores based on the degree of potential hazards. A higher score indicates a higher safety risk or severe health effect, and vice versa. The proposed methodology will greatly assist the users to identify the adverse safety and health effects caused by the ingredients. Hence, it is pivotal to eliminate or reduce the safety and health impacts from product usage. A case study on common ingredients used in the formulation of paint is presented on this study to describe the proposed method.  相似文献   
7.
Efficiency assessment of water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) has attracted considerable attention both for water company managers and water regulators. Within the methodological approaches that can be applied to estimate efficiency scores, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is the most widely applied technique. In spite of the positive features of DEA, it presents a major drawback which is its deterministic nature. In other words, conventional DEA models do not account for uncertainty in the data. To overcome this limitation, we assess, for the first time, the efficiency of a sample of Chilean WaSCs by using a DEA model with statistical tolerance in the data. Hence, 81 efficiency scores are estimated for each WaSC rather than a single score as with conventional DEA models. The results illustrate that outputs exhibit larger uncertainty than inputs. Moreover, WaSCs efficiency scores change significantly under the best-case and worst-case scenarios. The ranking of the WaSCs allows for the identification of which of them has the highest performance based on their efficiency scores. This information is essential to enhance efficiency and innovation in the water industry. Moreover, the introduction of uncertainty in the efficiency assessment allows for the prediction and ranking of future performance of WaSCs.  相似文献   
8.
The primary objective of waste management technologies and policies in the United States is to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of waste, particularly those relating to energy consumption and climate change. Performance indicators are frequently used to evaluate the environmental quality of municipal waste systems, as well as to compare and rank programs relative to each other in terms of environmental performance. However, there currently is no consensus on the best indicator for performing these environmental evaluations. The purpose of this study is to examine the common performance indicators used to assess the environmental benefits of municipal waste systems to determine if there is agreement between them regarding which system performs best environmentally. Focus is placed on how indicator selection influences comparisons between municipal waste management programs and subsequent system rankings. The waste systems of ten municipalities in the state of New York, USA, were evaluated using each common performance indicator and Spearman correlations were calculated to see if there was a significant association between system rank orderings. Analyses showed that rank orders of waste systems differ substantially when different indicators are used. Therefore, comparative system assessments based on indicators should be considered carefully, especially those intended to gauge environmental quality. Insight was also gained into specific factors which may lead to one system achieving higher rankings than another. However, despite the insufficiencies of indicators for comparative quality assessments, they do provide important information for waste managers and they can assist in evaluating internal programmatic performance and progress. To enhance these types of assessments, a framework for scoring indicators based on criteria that evaluate their utility and value for system evaluations was developed. This framework was used to construct an improved model for waste system performance assessments.  相似文献   
9.
Ranked set sampling (RSS) is a sampling procedure that has been shown to provide more efficient procedures than simple random sampling, in particular the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) statistic and the empirical distribution function (EDF). We briefly review the work of Bohn (1992) and Stokes and Sager (1988) on the effect of imperfect ranking on the RSS-based MWW test and on the RSS-based EDF, respectively. We propose a model for a ranking error probability matrix which we hope will become a useful tool for evaluating RSS-based statistical procedures  相似文献   
10.
A land suitability study was carried out by applying a multiple-criteria technique to 12 different vegetation types in Mexico's Tamaulipas state to help select potentially suitable sites for hazardous waste treatment plants. Species richness, spatial distribution, and uniqueness were selected as the criteria for estimating a vegetation type's suitability. Using the analytical hierarchy process, we ranked and mapped vegetation types, then compared the results with rankings of the same vegetation types based only on their number of endemic species. The suitabilities of the various vegetation types were ordered in more or less the same way by both methods, except in two cases for which the results were very different. The method proved to be a useful tool despite the availability of only partial (mostly qualitative) information; under such circumstances, expert experience can be incorporated in the evaluation process to a limited degree. The technique described in this paper has a high potential to aid decisions when many opinions and options must be considered simultaneously.  相似文献   
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