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1.
湖北省土地资源遥感调查与评价   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
根据1999年TM影像解译了湖北省土地利用现状,然后以土地利用现状图为基础,采用地理信息系统技术,结合湖北省的实际情况,选择土壤、地形、坡度等评价因子,对湖北省土地资源进行了适宜性评价,简要地将全省土地资源划分为九等。评价结果表明:湖北省水热条件好,土地适宜性广,宜农林牧业同时利用的土地广泛分布;但是该省的基本农田面积小,土地垦殖率高,低产田面积大,后备耕地资源严重不足;土地利用结构与土地资源的供给条件、利用要求不相适宜,利用效益末得到充分发挥。  相似文献   
2.
详细讨论了卫星遥感技术在长江流域水资源管理方面的应用问题,提出了两种实用的方法:①卫星遥感技术在灌溉水资源管理方面的应用;②长江流域地下水、地表水资源估算。进一步分析了两种方法的特点,介绍了卫星遥感技术的优点及用途,建议在长江流域水资源管理中加以利用。  相似文献   
3.
卫星遥感气溶胶虽然空间覆盖度高,但不同产品数据在准确性和适用性上存在显著差异.为了能够科学定量的衡量各个产品的优劣,选择最合适的气溶胶产品,该研究以数学统计为基础,提出了一种卫星遥感气溶胶产品评估体系,并依此确定了全球6个人口密集地区的最优卫星数据集,在此基础上开展了近10年的(2009—2018)气溶胶时空变化分析.结果表明暗像元算法在植被覆盖度高的地区表现最好,深蓝算法在亮地表的沙漠干旱地区更占优势,而暗像元-深蓝融合算法在土地类型复杂且气溶胶来源多变时得以突出.人口密集的6个区域中,除了区域A和区域B,其它地区的大气污染水平整体偏高.其中,A、B、E的气溶胶负荷呈下降变化,区域F基本不变,其余区域上升变化.评估体系的建立为气溶胶遥感产品的选取提供了新的衡量方法,且该文关于气溶胶时空分布及变化的分析可以为区域性气溶胶研究提供一定的参考价值.  相似文献   
4.
采用遥感尾气测试系统实测了柴油车在实际道路工况下的CO、HC和NO排放特征,修正了排放因子的计算方法,并与车载排放测试系统(PEMS)实测结果进行了验证,获得了实测车辆的CO、HC和NO排放因子.测试结果显示,在各种遥感监测的工况下柴油车尾气中均含有较高浓度的氧气,未考虑氧气影响的燃烧方程反演获得的各污染物体积浓度计算值与PEMS实测值的偏差较大,且氧气浓度越大,偏差越大.经过氧气修正的燃烧方程反演计算的尾气浓度与PEMS实测值吻合度大幅提升,适用于实际工况下遥感检测车辆尾气的反演计算.修正算法得到CO、HC和NO的排放因子离散性较小,精确度较高,可以为量化柴油车尾气排放贡献提供科学依据.  相似文献   
5.
基于成都市2013年6月~2015年5月期间由Mie散射激光雷达探测的大气消光系数廓线资料,发现混合层以上在颗粒物消光和分子消光之间一致存在一个S型的过渡区,利用sigmoid函数对此分布形态进行模拟,通过计算该函数上下曲率最大点所在的高度,据此提出了颗粒物分界层Mie散射激光雷达识别的sigmoid算法.针对该算法模拟效果的分析表明,颗粒物分界层过渡区附近大气消光系数理论廓线和实测廓线保持了高度的相关性,二者在春夏秋冬四季的相关系数(R)分别为0.9971±0.0052、0.9935±0.0167、0.9979±0.0038和0.9990±0.0021(均通过α=0.05的显著性检验).基于sigmoid算法计算的颗粒物分界层过渡区与成都市温江站探空资料得到的逆温层之间存在很好的对应关系.  相似文献   
6.
One feature of climate change is the trends to earlier spring onset in many north temperate areas of the world. The timing of spring flowering and leafing of perennial plants is largely controlled by temperature accumulation; both temperature and phenological records illustrate changes in recent decades. Phenology studies date back over a century, with extensive databases existing for western Canada. Earlier spring flowering has been noted for many woody plants, with larger trends seen for species that develop at spring's start. Implications for ecosystems of trends to earlier spring arrival include changes in plant species composition, changes in timing and distribution of pests and disease, and potentially disrupted ecological interactions. While Alberta has extensive phenology databases (for species, years, and geographic coverage) for recent decades, these data cannot provide continuous ground coverage. There is great potential for phenological data to provide ground validation for satellite imagery interpretation, especially as new remote sensors are becoming available. Phenological networks are experiencing a resurgence of interest in Canada (www.plantwatch.ca) and globally, and linking these ground-based observations with the view from space will greatly enhance our capacity to track the biotic response to climate changes.  相似文献   
7.
More timely access to data and information on the initiation, evolution and effects of harmful algal blooms can reduce adverse impacts on valued natural resources and human health. To achieve this in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a pilot project was initiated to develop a user-driven, end-to-end (measurements to applications) observing system. A key strategy of the project is to coordinate existing state, federal and academic programs at an unprecedented level of collaboration and partnership. Resource managers charged with protection of public health and aquatic resources require immediate notice of algal events and a forecast of when, where and what adverse effects will likely occur. Further, managers require integrated analyses and interpretations, rather than raw data, to make effective decisions. Consequently, a functional observing system must collect and transform diverse measurements into usable forecasts. Data needed to support development of forecasts will include such properties as sea surface temperature, winds, currents and waves; precipitation and freshwater flows with related discharges of sediment and nutrients; salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll concentrations (in vivo fluorescence); and remotely-sensed spatial images of sea surface chlorophyll concentrations. These data will be provided via a mixture of discrete and autonomous in situ sensing with near real-time data telemetry, and remote sensing from space (SeaWiFS), aircraft (hyperspectral imagery) or land (high-frequency radar). With calibration across these platforms, the project will ultimately provide a 4-dimensional visualization of harmful algae events in a time frame suitable to resource managers.  相似文献   
8.
On the Kola Peninsula, the mining and concentration industry exerts anthropogenic impact on the environment. Tailing dumps cause airborne pollution through dusting, and waterborne pollution due to direct dumping and accidental releases. The objectives were: (1) to analyse multidate satellite imagesfor 1964–1996 to assess the environmental pollution from themining and concentration activity in the Kola in temporal perspective; (2) to evaluate remote sensing methods for integrated environmental impact assessment. The area of mining and industrial sites steadily expands and amounted to 94 km2 in 1996. The polluted water surface amounted to at least 150 km2 through dumping in 1978 and to 106 km2 in1986 due to dusting. Thus, the impact from the mining and concentration activity should be reconsidered as more significant than it was officially anticipated. In the past the main mechanism of pollution wasdirect dumping into the lakes. Currently and in future, airborne pollution after dusting storms will dominate. The effective recultivation of the tailing dumps will be a long-term process. For effective assessment of impacts from the mining and concentration industry, remote sensing methods should be complemented by in-situ measurements, fieldwork, and mathematical modelling.  相似文献   
9.
A comprehensive environmental assessment (EA) is a pre-requisite before the site for developing a hazardous waste treatment and disposal facility (HWTDF) is selected. However, the resource limitations, especially for developing countries, often dictatethat the detailed EA be restricted to those sites, which are constraint free and have low hazard potentials. Thus, a preliminary screening exercise for assessing the suitability ofsite for developing the HWTDF needs to be carried out to avoid huge costs involved in detailed EA. While screening a HWTDF site,various factors such as present land use, ecologically sensitiveareas, geology and hydrogeology of the area, the quality and quantity of wastes, engineered safeguards, and the operationalprocedures that need to be adopted, are required to be addressed. In this paper, a multi-level screening criteria employing RemoteSensing, Constraint Mapping, Groundwater Pollution Potential Index (DRASTIC Index), and the Site Ranking was used to assess the suitability of a proposed site for the development of HWTDF.The study helped to identify various constraints at the proposedsite and their significance on the development of the HWTDF.  相似文献   
10.
本文通过对赤水宝元-元厚地区地质背景的分析,研究影响油气遥感无价值信息的主要因素,确定排除油气遥感无价值信息的基本原则,从而决定油气遥感有用信息,并作出地质解释,说明油气遥感直接勘探是一种快速、经济、有效的方法。  相似文献   
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