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排序方式: 共有1743条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
本文研究了植稻前淹水时间长短对土壤物理性质和粘闭作用的影响。结果表明,淹水可以显著地降低土壤强度,但土壤抗穿透力并不随淹水时间的延长而进一步明显下降;延长淹水时间,可以促进土壤粉粒和粘粒的分散,但土壤粘闭胼形成的有效粘闭层厚度以及粘闭后表层土壤强度的降低、主要受所使用的粘闭机具的影响,而与淹水时间的长短无关。因此,过分地延长淹水时间的措施,在生产实践上的意义并不大。  相似文献   
2.
Chemical oxidation was applied to an artificially contaminated soil with naphthalene (NAP). Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. Evaluation of NAP distribution and mass reduction in soil, water and air phases was carried out through mass balance. The importance of the air phase analysis was emphasized by demonstrating how NAP behaves in a sealed system over a 4 hr reaction period. Design of Experiments method was applied to the following variables: sodium persulfate concentration [SP], ferrous sulfate concentration [FeSO4], and pH. The system operated with a prefixed solid to liquid ratio of 1:2. The following conditions resulted in optimum NAP removal [SP] = 18.37 g/L, [FeSO4] = 4.25 g/L and pH = 3.00. At the end of the 4 hr reaction, 62% of NAP was degraded. In the soil phase, the chemical oxidation reduced the NAP concentration thus achieving levels which comply with Brazilian and USA environmental legislations. Besides the NAP partitioning view, the monitoring of each phase allowed the variabilities assessment over the process, refining the knowledge of mass reduction. Based on NAP distribution in the system, this study demonstrates the importance of evaluating the presence of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds in the air phase during remediation, so that there is greater control of the system as to the distribution and presence of the contaminant in the environment. The results highlight the importance of treating the contaminant in all its phases at the contaminated site.  相似文献   
3.
Electrotrophs are microbes that can receive electrons directly from cathode in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). They not only participate in organic biosynthesis, but also be crucial in cathode-based bioremediation. However, little is known about the electrotrophic community in paddy soils. Here, the putative electrotrophs were enriched by cathodes of MECs constructed from five paddy soils with various properties using bicarbonate as an electron acceptor, and identified by 16S rRNA-gene based Illumina sequencing. The electrons were gradually consumed on the cathodes, and 25%–45% of which were recovered to reduce bicarbonate to acetic acid during MEC operation. Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum on the cathodes, and Bacillus genus within this phylum was greatly enriched and was the most abundant population among the detected putative electrotrophs for almost all soils. Furthermore, several other members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria may also participate in electrotrophic process in different soils. Soil pH, amorphous iron and electrical conductivity significantly influenced the putative electrotrophic bacterial community, which explained about 33.5% of the community structural variation. This study provides a basis for understanding the microbial diversity of putative electrotrophs in paddy soils, and highlights the importance of soil properties in shaping the community of putative electrotrophs.  相似文献   
4.
The increasing production and use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in industry and private households are leading to increased concentrations of AgNP in the environment. An ecological risk assessment of AgNP is needed, but it requires understanding the long term effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of AgNP on the soil microbiome. Hence, the aim of this study was to reveal the long-term effects of AgNP on soil microorganisms. The study was conducted as a laboratory incubation experiment over a period of one year using a loamy soil and AgNP concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1?mg?AgNP/kg soil. The short term effects of AgNP were, in general, limited. However, after one year of exposure to 0.01?mg?AgNP/kg, there were significant negative effects on soil microbial biomass (quantified by extractable DNA; p?=?0.000) and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (quantified by amoA gene copy numbers; p?=?0.009). Furthermore, the tested AgNP concentrations significantly decreased the soil microbial biomass, the leucine aminopeptidase activity (quantified by substrate turnover; p?=?0.014), and the abundance of nitrogen fixing microorganisms (quantified by nifH gene copy numbers; p?=?0.001). The results of the positive control with AgNO3 revealed predominantly stronger effects due to Ag+ ion release. Thus, the increasing toxicity of AgNP during the test period may reflect the long-term release of Ag+ ions. Nevertheless, even very low concentrations of AgNP caused disadvantages for the microbial soil community, especially for nitrogen cycling, and our results confirmed the risks of releasing AgNP into the environment.  相似文献   
5.
中国水环境的NPSP问题及对策   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
徐华君  沈志 《干旱环境监测》1996,10(2):86-89,101
介绍了我国水环境中的非点源污染(NonpointSourcepollution,缩写为NPSP)的情况,强调农业生产是最主要的非点源污染。同时,针对我国水污染防治的政策目标,提出一些建议。  相似文献   
6.
为了开展对我国沙暴传输规律的研究,了解我国北方干旱地区沙尘矿物特征有重要意义。本文对我国新疆塔克拉玛干沙漠区,内蒙腾格里沙漠区,贺兰山及银川等处的沙尘样品用X射线粉末衍射法进行矿物分析鉴定,并用原子吸收法作了特征元素的分析对比,根据矿物的X射线粉末衍射结果,结合元素分析,对沙漠源区及其以东地区沙尘矿物特征作了比较,判析了两个源区的矿物组成,讨论了它们的传输过程。  相似文献   
7.
几种土壤质量评价方法的比较   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
分别用T值分级法,综合指数法,模糊数学综合评判法,灰色聚类法,等斜率灰色聚类法,宽域灰色聚类法对湖南某地10个监测点的土壤质量现状进行评价,通过比较,认为宽域灰色聚类法较好。  相似文献   
8.
土壤全氮的快速测定   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本方法是过硫酸盐氧化消化样品的基础上测定土壤中全氮的光度法.采用碱性过硫酸钾溶液(0.37mol/L K_2S_2O_3,0.375N NaOH)消化土壤样品,然后用百里酚光度法进行测定,具有准确、灵敏、快速、简便等优点,适用于常规和大量样品的分析.  相似文献   
9.
中国乳腺癌与土壤环境中化学元素的相关性研究   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:12  
利用土壤元素资料2069448个数据、乳腺癌死亡调查资料31320例,研究了乳腺癌死亡率与人群生存的土壤环境中64个元素的相关性。结果表明,砷、汞、钡、铊、钕、铀、锆、锑等元素与乳腺癌死亡率有相关性。等级相关系数分别为-0.6820(P〈0.0005)、0.4567(P〈0.01)、-0.3773(P〈0.025)、-0.3852(P〈0.025)、0.3179(P〈0.05)、-0.4377(P〈  相似文献   
10.
土壤污染生物修复技术研究进展   总被引:19,自引:1,他引:19  
土壤污染的生物修复技术是环境污染治理技术的一个新领域 ,同传统的土壤化学、物理处理技术相比具有经济、高效、无二次污染、适用范围广等优点 ,近年来受到广泛关注。土壤作为大气、水体、固废等环境污染物迁移、滞留和沉积的场所 ,将成为今后环境治理和生态建设的重要目标。本文就当前土壤生物修复技术的分类和修复方法进行了系统的阐述 ,就该技术的应用前景和研究方向进行了分析和展望  相似文献   
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