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1.
采用气相色谱法测定油田区土壤中C_(10)~C_(40)的石油烃,通过优化加速溶剂萃取的条件,使方法在62 mg/L~3 100 mg/L范围内线性良好,方法检出限为4.8 mg/kg。用该方法测定石油区短期、中期、长期油井污染土壤样品,5次测定结果的RSD为1.3%~5.2%,加标回收率为84.8%~98.5%,有证标准样品测定结果在可信区间内。  相似文献   
2.
采用水浴提取法处理羊八井地热区土壤和植物样品中可溶性氟,并用离子选择性电极法测定提取液及地热水中的氟。结果表明,地热水中氟离子最高为162 mg/L,土壤和植物中水溶性氟分别为347 mg/kg~937 mg/kg和189 mg/kg~164 mg/kg。氟离子在不同植物中的分布差异较大,嵩草属植物富集氟离子的能力最强,故可利用植物修复技术对高氟地热水、土壤净化处理,以降低氟污染。  相似文献   
3.
南京市农用地土壤中重金属形态特征分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以南京市农用地土壤为研究对象,采用顺序提取的方法对Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd做化学形态分析,了解不同元素各形态下空间赋存的含量与占比。结果表明,在农用地土壤中,上述4种金属元素所赋存的化学形态活泼性顺序为CdPbCuZn,其中Cd主要为醋酸提取态,Pb主要为可还原态,各占总量的40%以上,具有较高的生物有效性和潜在危害性;Cu与Zn主要为残渣态,占总量的60%左右,生物可利用性较低。由因子分析法可知,土壤p H值越大,Zn与Cd就越趋于向稳定的化学形态转化,土壤有机质含量越高,对Cu与Pb的络合能力就越强,可以降低其环境危害性。  相似文献   
4.
以某铅锌冶炼厂周边土壤为研究对象,通过对其原料及周边土壤中铅含量的检测,结果显示:该冶炼厂周边土壤铅质量比在22.73mg/kg~126.51mg/kg之间,平均值为42.68mg/kg,是当地土壤铅背景值的1.85倍.采用铅质量比空间分布分析和同位素混合模型计算分析了冶炼厂周边土壤中铅的可能来源,分析表明:土壤铅质量比的空间分布及铅同位素比值与冶炼厂的焦化原料煤相近,焦化原料煤对周边土壤铅污染贡献最大.  相似文献   
5.
Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Zinc deficiency is the most ubiquitous micronutrient deficiency problem in world crops. Zinc is essential for both plants and animals because it is a structural constituent and regulatory co-factor in enzymes and proteins involved in many biochemical pathways. Millions of hectares of cropland are affected by Zn deficiency and approximately one-third of the human population suffers from an inadequate intake of Zn. The main soil factors affecting the availability of Zn to plants are low total Zn contents, high pH, high calcite and organic matter contents and high concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, bicarbonate and phosphate in the soil solution or in labile forms. Maize is the most susceptible cereal crop, but wheat grown on calcareous soils and lowland rice on flooded soils are also highly prone to Zn deficiency. Zinc fertilizers are used in the prevention of Zn deficiency and in the biofortification of cereal grains.  相似文献   
6.
高效液相色谱法测定稻米和稻田水土中多菌灵残留   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用高效液相色谱法测定稻米和稻田水土中的多菌灵残留,用稀盐酸溶液提取,经液液分配净化,外标法定量。多菌灵的峰面积与进样质量在0.15ng-220ng范围内呈线性相关,在稻田水、土壤和稻米中的最低检出质量比分别为0.01mg/kg、0.01mg/kg和0.02mg/kg。3个质量水平的加标回收试验结果表明,多菌灵在稻田水样中的平均回收率为87.1%~93.0%,RSD为3.3%~3.8%;在土壤中的平均回收率为84.8%-91.9%,RSD为1.4%~4.1%;在稻米中的平均回收率为83.9%~89.6%,RSD为1.8%-5.5%。  相似文献   
7.
高效液相色谱-原子荧光光谱联用分析土壤中形态砷   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)-原子荧光光谱(AFS)联用技术分析土壤中亚砷酸盐[As(Ⅲ)]、二甲基砷(DMA)、一甲基砷(MMA)和砷酸盐[As(Ⅴ)]等4种形态砷,以磷酸为提取剂、抗坏血酸为还原剂,优化了水浴提取条件。As(Ⅲ)、DMA、MMA和As(Ⅴ)在7 min之内实现了完全分离,在1.00μg/L~100μg/L范围内线性良好,实验室检出限分别为0.25μg/L、0.36μg/L、0.39μg/L和0.51μg/L,土壤标准样品平行测定的RSD≤7.4%,加标回收率为79.5%~95.0%,提取率为74.6%~90.4%。  相似文献   
8.
Liu HM  Lu SY  Buekens AG  Chen T  Li XD  Yan JH  Ma XJ  Cen KF 《Chemosphere》2012,86(3):300-307
In order to determine the baseline contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in different areas in China, prior to the construction of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), a total of 32 representative soil samples was collected near 16 incinerators and analyzed for their PCDD/F concentrations. The PCDD/F baseline concentrations in the soil samples ranged from 0.32 to 11.4 ng I-TEQ kg−1 (dry matter), with average and median value of 2.73 and 2.24 ng I-TEQ kg−1 (dry matter), respectively, and a span between maximum and minimum recorded value of 36. The PCDD homologues predominated in 26 out of 32 soil samples, with the ratio (PCDDs)/(PCDFs) ranging from 1.1 to 164; however in the other 6 samples, PCDF homologues were larger, with the same ratio varying from 0.04 to 0.8. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to examine PCDD/F amount and profile in these soil samples, and their possible associations with known emission sources: in this process 6 really distinct isomer fingerprints were identified. Background PCDD/F levels and profiles were comparable to those found in soils from China and other countries and indicate a rather low baseline PCDD/F contamination of soils. The present data provide the tools for future assessment of a possible impact of these MSWIs.  相似文献   
9.
建立了用加速溶剂萃取仪(ASE)萃取、凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)净化、气相色谱/串联四极杆质谱多反应监测、同时测定土壤中17种有机氯农药和19种多氯联苯的方法.加标浓度在3.3μg/kg时的平均回收率在79.6%~93.2%之间,相对标准偏差在2.9%~13.0%之间,定量限在0.01~0.51μg/kg之间.在检测土壤样品中的有机氯农药和多氯联苯残留方面,Gc-QqQ-MS/MS相对于气相色谱/电子捕获检测器(GC-ECD)和GC-MS的选择离子检测(SIM)模式具有非常明显的优势,尤其是在低浓度水平的定性和定量方面.  相似文献   
10.
Concentrations of radionuclides were measured in soils from a grid of locations surrounding the US Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and from a grid on a reference site approximately 20 km southeast of the WIPP site. Each of the two grids has 16 sampling locations (grid nodes) systematically distributed within an area of 16.580 ha. Sampling was conducted prior to the arrival of the first waste shipment at WIPP. Thus, the 137Cs and 23,240Pu in the soil are expected to have been deposited as global fallout, although the Gnome Site, 8.8 km southwest of the WIPP, is also a potential source of 239,240Pu and fission products. The reference grid has significantly higher concentrations of fallout and natural radionuclides than the WIPP grid. Up to 80% of the total variability in radionuclide concentrations across the two grids is attributable to differences between grid nodes. Differences between replicates within a location account for 44-50% of the variability in concentrations of the uranium isotopes, but only 11-17% of the variability in the concentrations of the other radionuclides. Samples having similar abundance of radionuclides were spatially aggregated across the terrain. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were strongly correlated with the concentrations of Al and Pb, and with the percentages of sand, silt and clay in the soil. Normalizing radionuclide concentrations to the concentration of Al or percent fine particles can help adjust for differences in soil textures among samples and facilitate the detection of gradients or temporal changes in soil concentrations.  相似文献   
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