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1.
Carbon coated monolith was prepared by sucrose solution 65 wt.% via dip-coating method. Sulfonation of incomplete carbonized carbon coated monolith was carried out in order to synthesize solid acid catalyst. The textural structure characteristics of the solid acid catalyst demonstrated a low surface area and pore volume. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a by-product of palm oil refineries, was utilized as oil source in biodiesel production. The esterification reaction subjected to different reaction conditions was performed by using the sulfonated carbon coated monolith as heterogeneous catalyst. The sulfonation process had been performed by using vapour of concentrated H2SO4 that was much easier and efficient than liquid phase sulfonation. Total acidity value of carbon coated monolith was measured for unsulfonated sample (0.5 mmol/g) and sulfonated sample (4.2 mmol/g). The effect of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time were examined. The maximum methyl ester content was 89% at the optimum condition, i.e. methanol/oil molar ratio (15:1), catalyst amount (2.5 wt.% with respect to PFAD), reaction time (240 min) and temperature 80 °C. The sugar catalyst supported on the honeycomb monolith showed comparable reactivity compared with the sugar catalyst powder. However, the catalyst reusability studies showed decrease in FFA% conversion from 95.3% to 68.8% after four cycles as well as the total acidity of catalyst dropped from the value 4.2 to 3.1 mmol/g during these cycles. This might be likely due to the leaching out of SO3H group from the sulfonated carbon coated monolith surface. The leaching of active species reached a plateau state after fourth cycle.  相似文献   
2.
建立了一种利用固相萃取法对固体废物浸出液(TCLP)中二硝基苯进行萃取,DB-5石英毛细管柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25μm)进行分离,质谱检测器检测二硝基苯的方法。方法在0.002 0~0.020 0 mg/L之间线性关系良好,二硝基苯三种同分异构体的检出限均为0.5μg/L,模拟样品加标回收率为93%~96%,RSD≤2%;实际固体废物样品测定的加标回收率为95%~98%。  相似文献   
3.
Solid phase reactions of Cr(Ⅵ) with Fe(0) were investigated with spherical-aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy(Cs-STEM) integrated with X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy(XEDS). Near-atomic resolution elemental mappings of Cr(Ⅵ)–Fe(0) reactions were acquired. Experimental results show that rate and extent of Cr(Ⅵ) encapsulation are strongly dependent on the initial concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in solution. Low Cr loading in nZⅥ(1.0 wt%) promotes the electrochemical oxidation and continuous corrosion of n ZⅥ while high Cr loading(1.0 wt%) can quickly shut down the Cr uptake. With the progress of iron oxidation and dissolution, elements of Cr and O counter-diffuse into the nanoparticles and accumulate in the core region at low levels of Cr(Ⅵ)(e.g., 10 mg/L). Whereas the reacted n ZⅥ is quickly coated with a newly-formed layer of 2–4 nm in the presence of concentrated Cr(Ⅵ)(e.g., 100 mg/L). The passivation structure is stable over a wide range of pH unless pH is low enough to dissolve the passivation layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) depth profiling reconfirms that the composition of the newly-formed surface layer consists of Fe(Ⅲ)–Cr(Ⅲ)(oxy)hydroxides with Cr(Ⅵ) adsorbed on the outside surface. The insoluble and insulating Fe(Ⅲ)–Cr(Ⅲ)(oxy)hydroxide layer can completely cover the n ZⅥ surface above the critical Cr loading and shield the electron transfer. Thus, the fast passivation of nZⅥ in high Cr(Ⅵ) solution is detrimental to the performance of nZⅥ for Cr(Ⅵ) treatment and remediation.  相似文献   
4.
采用选择性较好的HNO3—KI—MIBK萃取体系对铋渣和尾矿渣浸出液中的痕量银进行预分离富集后,用火焰原子吸收法(AAS)进行测定。此法不仅变异系数小(约为3.1%),而且检出限比直接火焰AAS法降低两个数量级,达0.5ng/ml.另外,还就作品细度对银测定结果的影响原因做了初步探讨。  相似文献   
5.
高温嗜粪菌的选育和猪粪发酵研究   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
筛选得到了8株嗜高温(55℃)嗜粪细菌,均具有较强的发酵猪粪能力。加入所选育菌株进行的猪粪高温(55℃)固体好氧发酵实验发明,24h内可将猪粪发酵成无臭味、深褐色的稳定和无害化产物,常温下长时间放置也不会产生腐败和臭味。此发酵产物的氮试验法结果显示,猪粪已发酵至表观成熟和稳定化,可作为进一步制取优质有机复合肥料的良好前体物。  相似文献   
6.
塑料和橡胶类废物的热物理与焚烧特性研究的进展   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
随着社会和科技的发展,塑料和橡胶废弃量与日俱增,已成为城市垃圾的重要组成,由于这类废弃的聚合物给环境带来了污染问题,怎样合理地处理和利用已经成为一项重要的研究课题,本文对塑料和橡胶类的废物的理化性质,热值,焚烧特性,污染特性进行了论述,并根据它们的热物理及焚烧特性提出了进一步优化废物焚烧炉,完善低污染,低腐蚀,低粘结的废弃物的焚烧工艺的一些设想。  相似文献   
7.
It is the key to control bio-derived dissolved organic matters (DOM) in order to reduce the effluent concentration of wastewater treatment, especially for waste leachate with high organic contaminants. In the present study, the anaerobic degradation of aerobically stabilized DOM was investigated with DOM substrate isolated through electrodialysis. The degradation of bio-derived DOM was confirmed by reduction of 15% of total organic carbon in 100 days. We characterized the molecular behavior of bio-derived DOM by coupling molecular and biological information analysis. Venn based Sankey diagram of mass features showed the transformation of bio-derived DOM mass features. Occurrence frequency analysis divided mass features into six categories so as to distinguish the fates of intermediate metabolites and persistent compounds. Reactivity continuum model and machine learning technologies realized the semi-quantitative determination on the kinetics of DOM mass features in the form of pseudo-first order, and confirmed the reduction of inert mass features. Furthermore, network analysis statistically establish relationship between DOM mass features and microbes to identify the active microbes that are able to utilize bio-derived DOM. This work confirmed the biological technology is still effective in controlling recalcitrant bio-derived DOM during wastewater treatment.  相似文献   
8.
就炼油企业固体废物产生的数量和主要种类进行了分析和总结,对目前的防治进行了论述,并提出了对固废进一步减量化、资源化、无害化管理和治理的途径。  相似文献   
9.
中美固体废物污染防治法律制度的比较   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
对中美两国的固体废物污染制度进行了全面系统地比较,分析了在固体废物污染防治中的管理制度、环境立法的完善程度和法律现任的同异性,提出在执行固体废物污染环境防治法中需要借鉴美国等固体废物立法比较早的国家在固体废物污染防治方面的立法经验,不断完善我国固体废物污染防治的法规体系。  相似文献   
10.
介绍位于纽约州北汉姆斯特城的PortWashington城市固体废弃物填埋场填埋气体的排放、监测和处理系统及其有关测试数据和从中得到的启示.  相似文献   
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