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排序方式: 共有4515条查询结果,搜索用时 859 毫秒
1.
The study addresses the potential of using concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) as a sustainable alternative of clean energy generation in the Mediterranean region and, in particular, in its North Africa shore. This location presents attractive conditions for the installation of CSPs, in particular high solar irradiation, good manpower concentration, and proximity and availability of water resources for condenser cooling. Energetic, exergetic, and economic analyses were conducted taking into consideration a particular type of CSPs - the parabolic trough concentrated solar power plant, which incorporates the most proven technology and it is already used in Southern Europe (Spain). In addition, the study considered the impact of project financing and incentives on the cost of energy. The combination of higher values for performance and potentially lower levelized cost of electricity (LCE) for the North Africa Mediterranean Rim than the South of Spain region can yield a very favorable return for the invested capital. Tripoli compared to Almeria presented superior performance and potentially lower LCE values ($0.18/kWh versus $0.22/kWh). This is significant, even when it is taken into consideration the fact that the plant in Tripoli, despite a relatively modest capacity factor of 34%, has a large gross power output of 173,886 MWhe. In addition, the implementation at the Tripoli location of a plant similar to the Anadsol plant has a slight advantage (2–3%) in terms of overall efficiency.  相似文献   
2.
燃煤电厂海水烟气脱硫工艺原理初探   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11  
董学德  李绍箕 《环境工程》1997,15(4):23-26,56
海水烟气脱硫工艺是利用天然的纯海水(燃煤电厂可直接利用电厂的冷却循环水)作为烟气中SO2的吸收剂,无需其它任何添加剂,也不产生任何废弃物,具有技术成熟、工艺简单、系统运行可靠、脱硫效率高(理论脱硫效率可达98%)和投资运行费用低等特点,目前在一些国家和地区已得到日益广泛的应用。本文是在部分模拟试验的基础上,对海水烟气脱硫工艺进行了简单的阐述。  相似文献   
3.
The technique of thermal desorption (TD)–GC/MS was evaluated for measuring airborne, 4–6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected onto quartz filters. TD provides a more readily automated and sensitive alternative to traditional solvent extraction, decreasing the time/cost of analysis and reducing the risk of analyte loss or sample contamination. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAH standard solutions loaded on sorbent tubes packed with quartz wool and the graphitized carbon black sorbent Carbograph2. The optimized method showed high desorption efficiency over the whole range of target PAHs with good precision, linearity and sensitivity. The proposed method was verified on an urban dust Standard Reference Material (SRM 1649a); the experimentally determined concentrations agreed with the certified ranges (95% confidence limit) for all target compounds except benzo[a]anthracene, which fell just outside the narrow certified range. The desorption efficiency and the reproducibility of the method was evaluated by analysing pieces of real sample filters sampled from urban air for a period of 24 h. The results confirmed the homogeneity of the filter and showed high recovery efficiencies for all target PAHs.  相似文献   
4.
Joachim Ruther 《Chemoecology》2004,14(3-4):187-192
Summary. Field tests were performed to evaluate the response of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to known scarab attractants and to investigate the influence of trap colour and height on the number of captured beetles. Both sexes were attracted by a lure mixture composed of geraniol, eugenol, and 2-phenylethyl propionate (PEP) (ratio 3:7:3). When testing floral volatiles individually, only geraniol, eugenol and methyl anthranilate but not PEP was attractive. Response of garden chafer to (Z)- 3-hexen-1-ol was strongly male-biassed. Both the response to floral volatiles and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol was increased by using funnel traps with yellow instead of grey vanes. Traps positioned at 50 and 125 cm above ground captured significantly more garden chafers than those at 200 cm. The strongly male-biassed response to (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol suggests that in P. horticola (subfamily Rutelinae) orientation towards plant volatiles emitted upon mechanical damage of plants is part of the male mate finding strategy as recently demonstrated for cockchafers of the genus Melolontha (subfamily Melolonthinae). Possible application of plant volatiles for control of P. horticola is discussed.  相似文献   
5.
资源型城市可持续发展能力的演变与调控   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
作为特殊的经济区,资源型城市的衰落与振兴日益成为社会关注的热点。本文从分析资源型城市可持续发展能力入手,论述了资源型城市发展能力的成长阶段及演变特征,提出了资源城市可持续发展能力调控的模式和途径。  相似文献   
6.
Heavy metal accumulation by plant communities has been studied in different zones of impact of gas field development. The contents of heavy metals in different blocks of plant communities has proved to depend not only on the location of phytocenosis but also on its species composition. Communities dominated by species of the family Poaceae contain smaller amounts of heavy metals than those dominated by species of the family Asteraceae, especially of the genus Artemisia. The order of precedence in the accumulation of heavy metals in different blocks of plant communities has been revealed.  相似文献   
7.
New data on the composition of surface assemblages of plant macroremains from soil and swamp samples have been obtained in the study of geomorphologically different localities in the middle reaches of the Nizhnyaya Tunguska River. The results of paleocarpological analysis of forest soil sections supported by relevant palynological and geochronological data are presented. Natural changes of the forest cover over the past 2400 years and quantitative characteristics of the paleoclimate during each stage are described.Translated from Ekologiya, No. 1, 2005, pp. 3–10.Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Koshkarova, Koshkarov.  相似文献   
8.
羽序灯心草作为酸性矿山废弃地先锋植物潜力   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
生态复垦是当前世界各国酸性矿山废弃地修复的主要方法.通过研究云南来利山锡矿区废弃地土壤pH值、肥力特征及重金属含量,以及矿区生长的羽序灯心草形态特征和植株体内重金属的分布特征,分析植株耐酸性、对废弃地土壤肥力的适应性及对Zn和Cu等重金属污染的耐性,探讨其作为酸性矿山废弃地先锋植物的潜力.结果表明,研究区域根际土壤pH值均值范围为3.46~4.01,呈酸性;土壤中有机质、全钾、全磷和速效磷含量分别为10.28~25.75g·kg~(-1)、 8.84~9.32g·kg~(-1)、 0.56~0.63g·kg~(-1)和1.82~5.72mg·kg~(-1),处于较低水平;土壤中Zn、Cu和Fe含量均值范围分别为54.93~114.49、 92.53~127.59和47 133.60~112 259.63 mg·kg~(-1),其中重金属Cu含量超出风险筛选值1.85~2.55倍;研究区域羽序灯心草株高均值范围为43.77~55.42 cm,对照组植株高度为51.38~57.66 cm,无显著差异,表明羽序灯心草具有耐酸性及对重金属污染具有耐性.进一步分析对重金属Cu和Zn的富集能力和转移特征,发现对Cu和Zn都具有富集能力,且对Zn具有运转能力,具有一定的富集吸收潜力.株高与根际土壤中速效磷的含量显著相关,后期羽序灯心草作为先锋植物在矿山废弃地进行种植时,可针对性地补充含速效磷的肥料改善土壤肥力条件.综合分析结果表明,羽序灯心草作为先锋植物修复酸性矿山废弃地具有巨大潜力.  相似文献   
9.
Biowaste valorization through anaerobic digestion is an attractive option to achieve both climate protection goals and renewable energy production. In this paper, a complete set of batch trials was carried out on kitchen waste to investigate the effects of mild thermal pretreatment, temperature regimen and substrate/inoculum ratio. Thermal pretreatment was effective in the solubilisation of macromolecular fractions, particularly carbohydrates. The ability of the theoretical methodologies in estimating hydrogen and methane yields of complex substrates was evaluated by comparing the experimental results with the theoretical values. Despite the single batch configuration, a significant initial hydrogen production was observed, prior to methane yield. Main pretreatment effect was the gain in hydrogen production; the extent was highly variable according to the other parameters values. High hydrogen yields, up to 113 mL H2/g VSfed, were related to the prompt transformation of soluble sugars. Thermophilic regimen resulted, as expected, in faster digestions (up to 78 mL CH4/gVS/day) and sorted out pH inhibition. The relatively low methane yields (342–398 mL CH4/g VSfed) were the result of the consistent lignocellulosic content and low lipid content. Thermal pretreatment proved to be a promising option for the enhancement of hydrogen production in food waste dark fermentation.  相似文献   
10.
为了解污水处理厂对精神活性物质的去除特征及总出水对受纳水体的生态风险,采用固相萃取-高效液相色谱-串联质谱法调查了北京市某污水处理厂中13种精神活性物质的浓度水平与负荷量变化,并运用RQ(risk quotient,风险熵)对总出水中精神活性物质进行风险评估.结果表明:①13种精神活性物质在总进水与总出水中均能检出,总质量浓度平均值分别为2 395.10和63.59 ng/L,其中ρ(EPH)(EPH表示麻黄碱)占比分别为93.9%和67.9%,其次为COD(可待因)与METH(甲基苯丙胺).污水处理厂上游地表水中ρ(EPH)、ρ(METH)与ρ(KET)(KET为氯胺酮)均高于总出水及其下游地表水,说明上游沿河可能有新的污染源输入.②污水处理厂对NK(去甲氯胺酮)、BE(苯甲酰爱康宁)和MTD(美沙酮)均呈负去除,其他精神活性物质的去除主要发生在二级生物处理与三级处理(超滤膜与UV消毒)阶段.③污水处理厂服务区域内精神活性物质的周内负荷量存在一定波动,AMP(苯丙胺)、METH、MDA(3,4-亚甲二氧基苯丙胺)、MDMA(3,4-亚甲二氧基甲基苯丙胺)、KET与HER(海洛因)的负荷量均在周末升高.④污水处理厂总出水中精神活性物质的生态风险均较低(RQ < 0.10).研究显示,污水处理厂不能完全去除污水中的精神活性物质,总出水中残留精神活性物质对受纳河流生态系统产生的长期混合效应不容忽视.   相似文献   
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