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1.
Although most research has focussed on inorganic nutrient forms of nitrate (NO-3) and phosphorus (PO34) in runoff and receiving waters, nitrogen loss from agricultural land can also occur in organic and ammonium-nitrogen form; phosphorus losses, although often dominated by particulate transport, may occur in soluble organic and inorganic form. Furthermore, fluxes between different species may take place during transport from the land to the stream and as a result of in-stream, in-river or in-lake transformations. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variation in all nitrogen species and phosphorus fractions in a drainage basin is therefore essential if the wider environmental significance of elevated nutrient concentrations in natural waters are to be assessed. This paper reviews recent work on N and P losses from agricultural land and presents some results from two intensive agricultural catchments: Slapton, Devon and the river Windrush catchment in the Cotswolds.  相似文献   
2.
针对某乡镇企业十分发达地区的跨行政(市县)区域水污染死鱼事故的剖析,本文提出了处理解决跨行政区域水污染纠纷事故的若干对策建议。  相似文献   
3.
南水北调的资源、环境和社会效应   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
建设南水北调工程,对中国的水资源在地区间进行合理调配,将带动其他资源的合理配置与利用,还可改善环境,是社会发展的需要,又受社会条件制约,一旦突破建成,将促使社会生产力发生新的飞跃并持续发展。  相似文献   
4.
Situations of water scarcity challenge sustainability and threaten small users' access to water. In response to this problem, there has been a search for a method of hydrological analysis that can better represent the needs of small water users. While this search is rooted in the debate favouring a more participatory and inclusive allocation of the resource, it also requires a new focus on smallholder hydrology that can confront the gaps and biases found in current hydrological practices in many countries. This article looks at past hydrological practices and also at results of recent studies, highlighting the perspective of smallholder irrigators in surface water planning in Zimbabwe, and groundwater planning in India. These case studies show that wider social forces, not always best science, drive hydrological practices. However, new frameworks focusing on the water user can emerge for more equitable and sustainable water management.  相似文献   
5.
为研究邢台市秋季PM2.5污染特征,于2017年10月15日~11月14日在邢台市区对PM2.5样品进行了采集,并对其中水溶性离子(包括Cl-、NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、Ca2+、Na+、Mg2+、K+)进行了分析.结果显示,观测期间邢台市ρ(PM2.5)平均值为(130.0±74.9)μg/m3,其中水溶性离子质量浓度为(69.8±11.4)μg/m3,占ρ(PM2.5)的53.3%,NO3-、SO42-和NH4+为主要离子,占水溶性离子比例达到了89.7%. 当污染加重,水溶性离子质量浓度随ρ(PM2.5)增大而升高,且NO3-、NH4+及SO42-占比亦逐渐升高,但其他离子占比随之下降,Ca2+尤为明显,表明ρ(PM2.5)升高时主要受二次无机转化影响;观测期间SOR(硫转化率)与NOR(氮转化率)的平均值分别为0.36和0.25,表明秋季SO2与NO2转化速率较强,二次无机污染严重,另外SOR及NOR与温度及相对湿度呈正相关,且SOR对二者更为敏感;邢台市秋季PM2.5呈弱碱性,NH4+主要以(NH42SO4和NH4NO3的形式存在;ρ(NO3-)/ρ(SO42-)平均值为2.13,表明移动源对秋季大气颗粒物的来源贡献较大;PMF分析结果表明,二次转化源、燃烧源及扬尘源为邢台市秋季PM2.5中水溶性离子的主要来源.  相似文献   
6.
Wastewater reclamation and reuse has been proved to be an effective way to relieve the fresh water crisis. However, toxic contaminants remaining in reclaimed water could lead to potential risk for reuse, and the conventional water quality standards have difficulty guaranteeing the safety of reclaimed water. Bioassays can vividly reflect the integrated biological effects of multiple toxic substances in water as a whole, and could be a powerful tool for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water. Therefore, in this study, the advantages and disadvantages of using bioassays for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water were compared with those of conventional water quality standards. Although bioassays have been widely used to describe the toxic effects of reclaimed water and treatment efficiency of reclamation techniques, a single bioassay cannot reflect the complex toxicity of reclaimed water, and a battery of bioassays involving multiple biological effects or in vitro tests with specific toxicity mechanisms would be recommended. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the safety of reclaimed water based on bioassay results, various methods including potential toxicology, the toxicity unit classification system, and a potential eco-toxic effects probe are summarized as well. Especially, some integrated ranking methods based on a bioassay battery involving multiple toxicity effects are recommended as useful tools for evaluating the safety of reclaimed water, which will benefit the promotion and guarantee the rapid development of the reclamation and reuse of wastewater.  相似文献   
7.
F-V_2 O_5-WO3/Ti02 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method.As the content of F ions increased from 0.00 to 0.35 wt.%,the NO conversion of F-V_2 O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalysts initially increased and then decreased.The 0.2 F-V_2 O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalyst(0.2 wt.% F ion)exhibited the best denitration(De-NOx) performance,with more than 95% NO conversion in the temperature range 160-360℃,and 99.0% N2 selectivity between 110 and 280℃.The addition of an appropriate amount of F ions eroded the surface morphology of the catalyst and reduced its grain size,thus enhancing the NO conversion at low temperature as well as the sulfur and water resistance of the V_2 O_5-WO3/Ti02 catalyst.After selective catalytic reduction(SCR) reaction in a gas flow containing SO_2 and H_2 O,the number of NH3 adsorption sites,active component content,specific surface area and pore volume decreased to different degrees.Ammonium sulfate species deposited on the catalyst surface,which blocked part of the active sites and reduced the NO conversion performance of the catalyst.On-line thermal regeneration could not completely recover the catalyst activity,although it prolonged the cumulative life of the catalyst.In addition,a mechanism for the effects of S02 and H_2 O on catalyst NO conversion was proposed.  相似文献   
8.
Changes in water quality from source water to finished water and tap water at two conventional drinking water treatment plants(DWTPs) were monitored.Beside the routine water quality testing,Caenorhabditis elegans-based toxicity assays and the fluorescence excitation–emission matrices technique were also applied.Both DWTPs supplied drinking water that met government standards.Under current test conditions,both the investigated finished water and tap water samples exhibited stronger lethal,genotoxic and reprotoxic potential than the relative source water sample,and the tap water sample was more lethal but tended to be less genotoxic than the corresponding finished water sample.Meanwhile,the nearly complete removal of tryptophan-like substances and newly generated tyrosine-like substances were observed after the treatment of drinking water,and humic-like substances were identified in the tap water.Based on these findings,toxic pollutants,including genotoxic/reproductive toxicants,are produced in the drinking water treatment and/or distribution processes.Moreover,further studies are needed to clarify the potentially important roles of tyrosine-like and humic-like substances in mediating drinking water toxicity and to identify the potential sources of these contaminants.Additionally,tryptophan-like fluorescence may be adopted as a useful parameter to monitor the treatment performance of DWTPs.Our observations provided insights into the importance of utilizing biotoxicity assays and fluorescence spectroscopy as tools to complement the routine evaluation of drinking water.  相似文献   
9.
为了解烟花爆竹燃放对保定市大气污染物和PM2.5中水溶性离子及有机碳(OC)、元素碳(EC)浓度的影响,对保定市春节期间大气污染物和颗粒物组分的浓度特征进行了分析,并评估了烟花爆竹的贡献.结果表明: 2019年春节期间烟花爆竹集中燃放期PM2.5、PM10、SO2、NO2、CO平均浓度比非集中燃放期分别增加了1.3、1.0、1.1、0.4、0.02倍;保定市春节期间禁燃措施施行后,除夕、初一2d污染物平均浓度、最高浓度和高浓度持续时间均明显下降,集中燃放期烟花爆竹燃放对PM2.5、PM10和SO2浓度贡献量从50%左右(2018年、2017年)下降至30%左右(2019年),其中SO2贡献量下降幅度超过PM2.5和PM10;组分分析表明,接待中心站点(主城区)、涿州站点(区县建成区)烟花爆竹燃放期K+、Mg2+、Cl-浓度在水溶性离子中的总占比分别为39.3%、51.1%,比非燃放期的占比显著上升;烟花爆竹燃放对PM2.5中K+、Mg2+、Cl-浓度贡献率在50%以上,其中对K+贡献占比高达89.0%,涿州站点SO42-、K+、Mg2+、Cl-的贡献量分别是接待中心站点的2.2、2.1、1.9、1.8倍,燃放期硫氧化率(SOR)、氮氧化率(NOR)相比于非燃放期均有一定程度的升高;集中燃放期OC、EC浓度较非集中燃放期分别升高了2.5、2.1倍,烟花爆竹燃放对OC影响大于EC.  相似文献   
10.
Seasonal variability of dissolved and particulate methylmercury(F-MeHg, P-MeHg) concentrations was studied in the waters of the Amazon River and its associated Curuai floodplain during hydrological year 2005–2006, to understand the MeHg exchanges between these aquatic systems. In the oxic white water lakes, with neutral pH, high F-MeHg and P-MeHg concentrations were measured during the rising water stage(0.70 ± 0.37 pmol/L, n = 26) and flood peak(14.19 ± 9.32 pmol/g, n = 7) respectively, when the Amazon River water discharge into the lakes was at its maximum. The lowest mean values were reported during the dry season(0.18 ± 0.07 pmol/L F-MeHg, n = 10 and 1.35 ± 1.24 pmol/g P-MeHg, n = 8), when water and suspended sediments were outflowing from the lakes into the River. In these lakes,the MeHg concentrations were associated to the aluminium and organic carbon/nitrogen changes. In the black water lakes, with acidic pH and reducing conditions, elevated MeHg concentrations were recorded(0.58 ± 0.32 pmol/L F-MeHg, n = 16 and 19.82 ± 15.13 pmol/g PMeHg, n = 6), and correlated with the organic carbon and manganese concentrations. Elevated values of MeHg partition coefficient(4.87 Kd 5.08 log(L/kg) indicate that MeHg is mainly transported associated with the particulate phase. The P-MeHg enrichment detected in all lakes suggests autochthonous MeHg inputs from the sediments into the water column. The MeHg mass balance showed that the Curuai floodplain is not the source of P-MeHg for the Amazon River.  相似文献   
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