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1.
The heterogeneous degradation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on five samples of natural Icelandic volcanic particles has been investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out under simulated atmospheric conditions using a coated wall flow tube (CWFT). The CWFT reactor was coupled to a blue light nitrogen oxides analyzer (NOx analyzer), and a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP) to monitor in real time the concentrations of NO2, NO and HONO, respectively. Under dark and ambient relative humidity conditions, the steady state uptake coefficients of NO2 varied significantly between the volcanic samples probably due to differences in magma composition and morphological variation related with the density of surface OH groups. The irradiation of the surface with simulated sunlight enhanced the uptake coefficients by a factor of three indicating that photo-induced processes on the surface of the dust occur. Furthermore, the product yields of NO and HONO were determined under both dark and simulated sunlight conditions. The relative humidity was found to influence the distribution of gaseous products, promoting the formation of gaseous HONO. A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed that supports our experimental observations. Regarding the atmospheric implications, our results suggest that the NO2 degradation on volcanic particles and the corresponding formation of HONO is expected to be significant during volcanic dust storms or after a volcanic eruption.  相似文献   
2.
为研究厦门市冬季不同PM2.5污染情境与气象条件和气团轨迹路径特征的关系,结合PM2.5观测数据,使用AGAGE(Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment)统计方法识别2014—2018年冬季厦门市PM2.5观测值、基线值和污染值情境,通过气象数据统计和气团后向轨迹聚类对不同PM2.5污染情境下气象条件和气团轨迹路径特征进行探究.结果表明:①厦门市冬季不同PM2.5污染情境下,ρ(PM2.5)及PM2.5污染值情境时长占比均呈波动中下降的趋势,具体表现为冬季PM2.5观测值、污染值和基线值情境下,ρ(PM2.5)平均值分别从2014年的42.2、90.7、16.4 μg/m3降至2018年的26.3、56.9、8.8 μg/m3,冬季PM2.5污染值情境时长占比从2014年的10.2%降至2018年的3.0%.②冬季PM2.5污染值情境下气象要素呈低风速、低气压、高温度、高相对湿度的特征.③冬季到达厦门市的气团轨迹路径中,局地路径由于大气条件稳定易累积形成PM2.5污染;偏北路径和西北路径易从临近省份携带污染物输入导致PM2.5污染,属于重要的外源污染输入路径;沿海路径和偏西路径均属于清洁路径,但沿海路径易在福建省北部与偏北路径重合形成污染输入,加强了偏北路径的污染物输送能力.研究显示,近年来厦门市冬季PM2.5污染有明显减弱趋势,但不利的气象条件和外来污染输入仍会造成PM2.5污染的发生.   相似文献   
3.
选取三峡库区支流御临河为研究对象,测量了5个水动力条件(平均流速为0.00,0.03,0.07,0.12,0.20m/s)下沉积物-水界面(SWI)氧通量的变化及水动力条件对SWI氧通量产生机制的影响.结果表明,随着平均流速的升高,SWI氧通量增加,由0.00m/s时的1.197mmol/(m2·h)增加为0.20m/s时的43.981mmol/(m2·h),溶解氧穿透深度增加,氧进入沉积物更深处并被微生物和还原性物质所利用,沉积物耗氧量上升;当平均流速较低时,沉积物耗氧量以生物耗氧量为主,在0.00m/s与0.03m/s时生物耗氧量为氧通量的85.3%与57.7%;当水体平均流速较高,化学耗氧量与其他耗氧量中的化学过程耗氧量在氧通量中的比重逐步提高.  相似文献   
4.
Review on the annual PM10 concentrations over a 10-year period shows that Macau is subjected to severe fine particulate pollution. Investigations of its variation in monthly and daily time scales with the local meteorological records reveal further details. It is found that a distinct feature of the Asian monsoon climates, the changes of wind direction, mainly controls the general trend of PM10 concentration in a year. The monsoon driven winter north-easterly winds bring upon Macau dry and particle enriched air masses leading to a higher concentration in that period while the summer south-westerly winds transport humid and cleaner air to the region leading to a lower PM10 value. This distinct seasonal feature is further enhanced by the lower rainfall volume and frequency as well as mixing height in winter and their higher counterparts in summer. It is also found that the development of tropical cyclones near Macau could also impose episode like PM10 concentration spikes due to the pre-typhoon induced stagnant air motion followed by the swing of wind direction to the northerly.  相似文献   
5.
The degradation of several biodegradable polymers was measured as a result of exposure to an anaerobic medium. The polymers investigated included materials based upon polylactic acid, polylactone, and poly(hydroxy butyrate/valerate) as well as those incorporating starch-based materials. The degradation was monitored by methane and carbon dioxide evolution. In addition, the physical and chemical changes were noted as a result of exposure. These measurements included changes in mass, dimension, and molecular weight. FTIR, UV-vis, proton, and13C NMR spectra were also recorded prior to and after exposure. The results clearly indicated that several biological and chemical degradation processes were occurring with the biodegradable polymers studied.Paper presented at the Bio/Environmentally Degradable Polymer Society—Second National Meeting, August 19–21, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.Issued as NRCC No. 37549.  相似文献   
6.
影响微生物絮凝剂产生的因素研究   总被引:24,自引:3,他引:24  
本文通过改变培养基的种类、培养基的碳源、氮源、无机盐离子来选择絮凝剂产生菌“Dfjm-1”高效低廉的培养基 ;通过改变培养基初始 p H值、培养温度、培养过程中的通气量等因素 ,得出“Dfjm-1”菌株产生絮凝剂的最佳条件。Dfjm-1产生絮凝剂的最佳因素为 :培养基初始 p H值为 6.5~ 7.0 ,培养温度为 3 0℃ ,培养时间为 60小时左右 ,通气量为 :早期 :2 50 r/ min;中期 1 50 r/ min;后期 1 0 0~ 1 50 r/ min  相似文献   
7.
沙尘天气对沈阳市空气质量的影响分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
针对沙尘天气的成因、来源及危害进行综述 ,对沈阳市 2 0 0 2年出现的沙尘天气特点及对空气质量影响进行了分析 ,提出几点防治对策  相似文献   
8.
Impact of triazophos insecticide on paddy soil environment   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
IntroductionRiceisthestapledietaround 3 0 %oftheworldpopulationandaround 60 %oftheAsianpopulation .Thiscropispreferentiallyorgenerallycultivatedundersubmergedsoilconditionsforreasonsofbetteryieldsandtopographicalsituations(Reichardt,1 997) .Theimportanceofsoilm…  相似文献   
9.
自然条件下石羊河终闾湖泊模拟研究   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:14  
石羊河流域史前曾存在大面积的终闾湖泊---猪野泽。自西汉开拓河西以后的两千多年以来,受人类活动影响,石羊河流域土地覆盖发生了显著的变化。灌溉农田取代了天然绿洲,而且面积逐步扩大,农业用水急剧增加,猪野泽逐渐退缩成许多小湖,并于近代干涸。在假设人类活动(主要是灌溉)对水资源未加利用的条件下(理想状态),通过确定流域的水量收支和改进水量平衡模型,对石羊河流域现代自然条件下“终闾湖”的面积进行了模拟重建,得出现代终闾湖的面积至少应为580km。  相似文献   
10.
Cutler P 《Disasters》1984,8(1):48-56
This paper, completed in January 1984, begins by briefly outlining the contrasting views of price behaviour during the last Ethiopian famine (1972–1974) put forward by Seaman and Holt (1980) and Sen (1981). A hypothesis is developed to account for peasant behaviour and price responses under developing famine conditions. This is then tested with data recently made available. The paper concludes by summarizing the findings and their implications for famine forecasting, and argues that famine conditions in Northern Ethiopia are likely to worsen during 1984.  相似文献   
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