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1.
新的《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》和新《环境保护法》实施后,燃煤火电企业的依法治企自觉性不断提高,但由于不同的环保管理文件对超标处罚依据和处罚手段不同,造成政府对企业处罚的自由裁量权加大,对企业造成一定的压力与困惑。结合企业实际运行情况对燃煤电厂大气污染物排放考核时间间隔提出建议。  相似文献   
2.
The increasing use of sea water for industrial cooling presents a real threat to the ecological environment in the ocean. in Taiwan where many electric power plants along the coast take sea water for cooling, people are concerned seriously about nuclear power plants. There are three nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Each plant has two units for generating power. the first two are located along the northern coast of Taiwan. the third is located in Kenting National Park along the coast of southernmost Taiwan. the plants take sea water for cooling, and discharge their heated effluents to the ocean surface from the coast. the thermal effluents have variable effects on the ecological environment near the plants. Fishermen living near the power plants complain that the heated water affects the inshore fishery catch. in addition, the thermal water from the second plant is easily accumulated near the coastal zone to influence the nearby swimming area in the summer-time. the thermal water from the third plant bleaches or kills some corals in shallow water near the outlet, and this conflicts with the interests of Kenting National Park.  相似文献   
3.
Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams adjacent to cornfields, streams where cows had unrestricted access, and reference locations without agriculture were compared to examine the effects of local land use and land use/land cover in the watershed. At each local site, macroinvertebrates and a variety of habitat parameters were measured upstream, adjacent, downstream, and farther downstream of the local land use. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate drainage basin area, land use/land cover percentages in each basin, and the distance from sample sites to the stream source. Three‐way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests with date, site type, and sampling location as main effects were used to explore differences in macroinvertebrate metrics using median substrate size, percent hay/pasture area, and stream depth as covariates. The covariates significantly improved model fit and showed that multiple contributing factors influence community composition. Local impacts were greatest at sites where cows had access, probably because of sedimentation and embeddedness in the substrate. Differences between the upstream and the adjacent and downstream locations were not as great as expected, perhaps because upstream recolonization was reduced by agricultural impacts or because of differences in the intensity or proximity of agriculture to riparian areas in the watershed. The results underscore the importance of both local and watershed factors in controlling stream community composition.  相似文献   
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水体中硒含量过高会导致水生生态系统退化,而中国现有的地表水环境质量标准对硒的标准值设定并不是基于我国水生生物相关毒理学研究得出的,难以因地制宜地保护我国水生生物.为保护我国水生生物,本研究利用物种敏感度分布法,推导出基于最大无效应浓度(NOEC)、最低有效应浓度(LOEC)的慢性硒(无机)淡水水质一级基准值和基于半数致死效应浓度(LC50)、半数最大效应浓度(EC50)、半数抑制浓度(IC50)的急性硒(无机)淡水水质二级基准值分别为0.58 μg·L-1、0.52 mg·L-1,发现我国现有的水质标准可能会对我国水生生物造成欠保护.进一步推导出为保护我国鱼类的硒(无机)淡水水质一级、二级基准值分别为0.21 μg·L-1、1.60 mg·L-1,以及硒淡水鱼类饲料有机硒和无机硒含量一级基准值分别为97 μg·kg-1和98 μg·kg-1.本研究基于硒对水生生物的急性和慢性毒性效应,推导出硒的系列基准值,为保护我国淡水水生生物安全的标准制定提供数据支撑和科学依据.  相似文献   
6.
环境要素的变化对浮游植物的群落结构和功能具有重要影响.为揭示洞庭湖南汉垸湖区浮游植物群落结构特征及其影响因素,分别于2017年11月(关泵封水期)和2018年6月(开泵放水期)在洞庭湖区典型堤垸——南汉垸进行了采样调查,并对调查区域内的浮游植物及主要水环境因子进行了系统监测和分析.结果表明:①调查期间共检出浮游植物8门62属,主要隶属于绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)和蓝藻门(Cyanophyta),浮游植物分布表现出较为显著的时间差异性,11月浮游植物的丰度为8.34×106~3.02×108 L-1,6月为1.13×106~2.04×107 L-1.②Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')介于1.10~3.24之间,Margalef丰富度指数(d)介于1.42~6.40之间,Pielou均匀度指数(J)介于0.48~0.87之间,多样性评价表明,南汉垸整体上介于轻污染与β-中污染之间,局部采样点为α-中污染.③PCA(主成分分析)结果表明,ρ(TN)、ρ(TP)和ρ(NH4+-N)为南汉垸水体的主要污染因子.④RDA(冗余分析)结果表明,南汉垸浮游植物群落结构分布与pH、ρ(NH4+-N)及ρ(TN)呈正相关,与WT(水温)呈负相关.研究显示,南汉垸水体介于轻污染与β-中污染之间,营养状态及浮游植物群落结构在时间上差异较大.   相似文献   
7.
选取黄渤海区域水产品生产、消费水平较高的23个城市,采集鱼类、海洋贝类、甲壳类、头足类及海珍品(海参、鲍鱼)等5类水产品共1225个样本,采用超快速液相色谱-串联质谱法测定了23种全氟烷基物质(PFASs)的含量,并分析了黄渤海区域水产品中PFASs的残留水平及分布特征.结果表明,黄渤海区域水产品中PFASs的残留水平具有明显的组分差异、城市分布及品种分布差异等特征.在23种PFASs组分中,共检出20种PFASs,其中全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)和全氟辛酸(PFOA)的检出率最高,分别为79.1%和71.7%,且PFOA的质量浓度占比最高(64.5%),为首要污染组分;在不同采样点样本中,莱州湾近岸的潍坊、滨州和东营,渤海湾近岸的沧州以及辽东湾近岸的营口为PFASs总质量浓度(∑PFASs)较高的城市,残留水平范围为10.2~16.8μg/kg;在不同品种样本中,检出PFASs组分的数量由高到低为:鱼类(20种) > 海洋贝类、甲壳类(18种) > 海珍品(16种) > 头足类(10种),其中海洋贝类、海珍品样本中检出率最高的是PFOA,鱼类、甲壳类样本中检出率最高的是PFOS,而头足类则是全氟辛烷磺酰胺(PFOSA);通过计算不同水产品中PFASs各组分的平均含量发现,PFOA、PFOS、全氟十一烷酸(PFUdA)和PFOSA在不同品种中平均含量相对较高,且表现出较为明显的组分差异性;通过计算危害指数(HR)评价人体暴露于PFASs的健康风险,得到PFASs各组分的危害指数均 < 1,说明黄渤海区域水产品中残留的PFASs对消费者的潜在健康风险较低.  相似文献   
8.
Wastewater treatment center(WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols,despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared.We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus(h Ad V),rotavirus, hepatitis A virus(HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1(HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance.  相似文献   
9.
In South Carolina, U.S.A., mink have been reintroduced from two apparently healthy populations to areas where populations haveexisted in the past but have been extirpated. High mortality wasobserved during transport of mink from the source populations. Inorder to elucidate the potential effects of dioxin-like compoundson the survival and reproduction of mink, concentrations of totalpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p-DDE, dioxin-likePCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), anddibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in livers of mink collectedfrom the source populations in South Carolina and Louisiana. Concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxinequivalents (TEQs) for the South Carolina and Louisiana mink were21 and 14 pg g-1, wet wt., respectively. PCB and TEQ concentrations were close to the threshold values that can, under laboratory conditions, elicit toxic effects in ranchmink. Therefore, any additional exposures of these populations toTEQs might adversely affect their populations.  相似文献   
10.
The evaluation of certain vascular plants that grow in the city of Madrid as biomonitors of SO2 air pollution in urban environments has been carried out. Total concentration of sulphur in leaves of the chosen higher plants as well as other parameters in close relation to this contaminant (visible injury symptoms, chlorophyll a- and b-content and peroxidase activity) have been determined in order to study the spatial distribution and temporal changes in SO2 deposition. Results obtained show that coniferous species such as Pinus pinea, were more sensitive to SO2 atmospheric concentration than leafy species as Quercux ilex subspecies ballota and, in the same way, bush species, such asPyracantha coccinea and Nerium oleander, were more sensitive than wooded species, such as Cedrus deodaraandPinus pinea, respectively. There is a higher accumulation of sulphur in vegetable species located near highways and dense traffic incidence roads and near areas with high density of population. The minimum values for accumulation of SO2 were registered in winter and spring seasons (from January to April) due to the vegetative stop; while maximum values are obtained during the summer season (from June to September), due to the stoma opening. The highest increments in sulphur concentration, calculated as the difference between two consecutive months, are obtained in May and June for all considered species except forCedrus deodara and Pyracantha coccinea, both species have few seasonal changes during the whole year. Some species are more sensitive to natural washing than others, showing a decrease in sulphur concentration after rainfall periods.  相似文献   
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