首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   2243篇
  免费   275篇
  国内免费   310篇
安全科学   705篇
废物处理   22篇
环保管理   307篇
综合类   977篇
基础理论   291篇
环境理论   3篇
污染及防治   104篇
评价与监测   152篇
社会与环境   121篇
灾害及防治   146篇
  2024年   12篇
  2023年   75篇
  2022年   124篇
  2021年   146篇
  2020年   130篇
  2019年   89篇
  2018年   72篇
  2017年   86篇
  2016年   92篇
  2015年   110篇
  2014年   96篇
  2013年   121篇
  2012年   176篇
  2011年   169篇
  2010年   149篇
  2009年   146篇
  2008年   96篇
  2007年   132篇
  2006年   134篇
  2005年   110篇
  2004年   88篇
  2003年   76篇
  2002年   64篇
  2001年   50篇
  2000年   51篇
  1999年   38篇
  1998年   32篇
  1997年   24篇
  1996年   20篇
  1995年   27篇
  1994年   22篇
  1993年   11篇
  1992年   7篇
  1991年   4篇
  1990年   4篇
  1989年   4篇
  1988年   3篇
  1987年   2篇
  1986年   4篇
  1985年   3篇
  1984年   2篇
  1983年   4篇
  1982年   3篇
  1981年   2篇
  1980年   2篇
  1978年   2篇
  1973年   1篇
  1972年   4篇
  1971年   5篇
  1969年   1篇
排序方式: 共有2828条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Human factors are the largest contributing factors to unsafe operation of the chemical process systems. Conventional methods of human factor assessment are often static, unable to deal with data and model uncertainty, and to consider independencies among failure modes. To overcome the above limitations, this paper presents a hybrid dynamic human factor model considering Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, and Bayesian network. The model is tested on accident scenarios which have occurred in a hot tapping operation of a natural gas pipeline. The results demonstrate that poor occupational safety training, failure to implement risk management principles, and ignoring reporting unsafe conditions were the factors that contributed most failures causing accident. The potential risk-based safety measures for preventing similar accidents are discussed. The application of the model confirms its robustness in estimating impact rate (degree) of human factor induced failures, consideration of the conditional dependency, and a dynamic and flexible modelling structure.  相似文献   
2.
A sequencing batch reactor was modeled using multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function artificial neural networks (MLPANN and RBFANN). Then, the effects of influent concentration (IC), filling time (FT), reaction time (RT), aeration intensity (AI), SRT and MLVSS concentration were examined on the effluent concentrations of TSS, TP, COD and NH4+-N. The results showed that the optimal removal efficiencies would be obtained at FT of 1 h, RT of 6 h, aeration intensity of 0.88 m3/min and SRT of 30 days. In addition, COD and TSS removal efficiencies decreased and TP and NH4+-N removal efficiencies did not change significantly with increases of influent concentration. The TSS, TP, COD and NH4+-N removal efficiencies were 86%, 79%, 94% and 93%, respectively. The training procedures of all contaminants were highly collaborated for both RBFANN and MLPANN models. The results of training and testing data sets showed an almost perfect match between the experimental and the simulated effluent of TSS, TP, COD and NH4+-N. The results indicated that with low experimental values of input data to train ANNs the MLPANN models compared to RBFANN models are more precise due to their higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower root mean squared errors (RMSE) values.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract:  Introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitat represents a rapidly expanding form of human encroachment, particularly in coastal systems. Light pollution alters the behavior of sea turtles during nesting; therefore, long-wavelength lights—low-pressure sodium vapor and bug lights—that minimize impacts on turtles are required for beach lighting in Florida (U.S.A.). We investigated the effects of these two kinds of lights on the foraging behavior of Santa Rosa beach mice (  Peromyscus polionotus leucocephalus ). We compared patch use and giving-up densities of mice for experimental food patches established along a gradient of artificial light in the field. Mice exploited fewer food patches near both types of artificial light than in areas with little light and harvested fewer seeds within patches near bug lights. Our results show that artificial light affects the behavior of terrestrial species in coastal areas and that light pollution deserves greater consideration in conservation planning.  相似文献   
4.
The feasibility of using U.K. coal-fired power station waste materials for artificial reef production is being examined. in June, 1989, an experimental artificial reef was constructed in Poole Bay, off the central south coast of the U.K., using three different mixtures of pulverised fuel ash (PFA), flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum and slurry, stabilized with cement and formed into blocks. Fifty tonnes of 40 × 20 × 20 cm blocks were formed into eight conical reef units replicating three different PFA/gypsum mixtures and one concrete control. the reef structure is 10m below chart datum on a flat sandy sea-bed.

Combustion of coal concentrates the heavy metal content in the resultant ash. the purpose of stabilization of the ash as blocks is twofold: to immobilize heavy metals (or other components) and to provide hard substratum for the attachment of organisms. to examine the effectiveness of this stabilization and hence the environmental compatibility of the block materials, heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn) content of the blocks has been monitored routinely over two years, to determine leaching rates. Sectional profiles indicate partial replacement of calcium content by magnesium. Associated with this there has also been some redistribution of heavy metals. Only in the case of cadmium has there been a detectable loss from the surface of blocks. Chromium and manganese concentrations appear to have increased. the metal content of the reef epibiota (including ascidians, Ascidia mentula; hydroids, Halecium spp.; bryozoans, Bugula spp. and red algae) growing on the ash blocks has been compared to that of epibiota attached to the concrete controls and surrounding sea-bed. to date no evidence of excess bioaccumulation of metals has been detected.

The physical integrity of the ash reef blocks has been maintained. There is evidence that the blocks are increasing in compressive strength.

An indication of the fishery enhancement potential of the experimental structure is given by the presence of eight commercially fished species (crustaceans and molluscs) including lobsters (Homarus gammarus).  相似文献   
5.
长江三峡区间数字流域水系的构建   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
基于全球陆地一公里基础高程GLOBE数据 ,采用Martz和Garbrecht研制的数字高程流域水系模型自动提取长江三峡万县~宜昌区间的河网水系、各子流域分水线、河网与子流域编码及河网结构拓扑关系 ,从而构成该区域的数字流域和数字水系。结果表明该模型生成的水系是可以接受的 ,与 1:10万地形图上长江三峡万县~宜昌区间的水系一致 ,这为空间分布式模型的建立提供了必备的空间信息数据。最后 ,探讨了数字流域水系在流域生态学中的应用前景 ,构建的数字水系可为中尺度以上流域水体和水生生物的资源保护与合理利用提供决策平台 ,服务于社会经济的可持续发展。  相似文献   
6.
Granular acid-activated neutralized red mud (AaN-RM) has been successfully prepared with good chemical stability and physical strength. However, its potential for industrial application remains unknown. Therefore, the performance of granular AaN-RM for phosphate recovery in a fixed-bed column was investigated. The results demonstrated that the phosphate adsorption performance of granular AaN-RM in a fixed-bed column was affected by various operational parameters, such as the bed depth, flow rate, initial solution pH and initial phosphate concentration. With the optimal empty-bed contact time (EBCT) of 24.27 min, the number of processed bed volumes and the phosphate adsorption capacity reached 496.95 and 84.80 mg/g, respectively. Then, the saturated fixed-bed column could be effectively regenerated with a 0.5 mol/L HCl solution. The desorption efficiency remained as high as 83.45% with a low weight loss of 3.57% in the fifth regeneration cycle. In addition, breakthrough curve modelling showed that a 5-9-1 feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) could be effectively applied for the optimization of the fixed-bed adsorption system; the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) evaluated on the validation-testing data were 0.9987 and 0.0183, respectively. Therefore, granular AaN-RM fixed-bed adsorption exhibits promising potential for phosphate removal and recovery from polluted water.  相似文献   
7.
人工智能技术对长江流域水污染治理的思考   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
随着经济的快速发展和城市化进程的不断加速,促使水污染严重的长江流域需从污染物去除过程的建模与优化、污水处理过程的优化控制、水污染监测系统的构建开展水污染治理研究.传统的水污染处理技术存在污染物去除效率预测精度较低、污水优化控制成本较高、水污染监测滞后效应严重的问题.人工智能技术能够有效克服上述问题,因此通过梳理国内外学者利用人工智能技术在污水污染物去除过程的建模与优化、污水处理过程的优化控制及水污染监测系统的构建等方面的研究成果,为全面加强长江流域水污染治理能力提供科学可靠的技术指导.结果表明:①利用人工神经网络技术(径向基神经网络、多层前馈网络-人工神经网络、多层感知器神经网络)对污水污染物去除过程进行建模与优化,为精确预测长江流域重金属(Cr、Cu)、营养盐(TN、TP)、持久性有机污染物〔PBDEs(多溴二苯醚)、HCH(六氯环己烷)〕的去除率提供重要参考价值.②采用污水处理的自动控制技术与人工智能技术(递归神经网络、支持向量机、模糊神经网络等)构建污水智能控制系统,为长江流域实现高效节能的污水优化控制提供重要的技术指导.③利用在线监测仪器和人工智能技术(小波神经网络、多元线性回归-人工神经网络、叠层去噪自动编码器等)建立水污染智能监测系统,为解决长江流域水污染监测响应滞后问题提供有力的技术支持.因此,人工智能技术对长江流域提高污水污染物去除率,降低污水优化控制成本,提升水污染监测时效性具有重要的推广价值.   相似文献   
8.
选取农作物秸秆露天燃烧严重的东北地区,采用人工神经网络的方法,结合卫星火点和气象数据,开展秸秆露天燃烧预测研究.结果表明:人工神经网络预测模型成功验证了松嫩平原地区2015年10月25日~11月15日的秸秆露天燃烧情况,其准确度为67.1%,经过多次试验,在神经网络建模与验证数据配比为80:20时,预测准确度最高,可达69.7%,同时该模型的稳定性较好.而对不同区域,不同时间段的预测研究表明,人工神经网络较适用于长时间序列的预测.就影响因素而言,相对湿度是影响秸秆露天燃烧的最重要因素.本研究结果可为空气质量模式提供火点预测数据,提高其预报预警能力,为区域联防联控政策的制定提供科技支持.  相似文献   
9.
复杂性是旅游目的地网络化发展的必然趋势,是认识旅游地网络空间结构与组织特征的重要研究手段。论文以河北省野三坡旅游地为例,通过构建旅游联系强度模型,建立旅游地空间网络,并运用TOP网络空间分析以及复杂网络理论,揭示旅游地网络空间结构与组织的复杂性特征。研究发现:1)旅游地网络具有空间集聚性,形成了以核心景区为中心,由中心城镇、乡村社区和特色园区共同构成的空间集聚单元,并体现出“邻近连接”与“择优连接”的双重特性;2)旅游地网络服从幂律分布,具有无标度网络特性;3)每个节点的前三名和前五名旅游联系强度网络(Top3和Top5网络)具有较小的平均路径长度、较大的集聚系数,呈现出典型的“小世界网络”特征;4)旅游地网络是典型的异配型网络,度-度呈负相关,而网络节点的集聚系数与其度值之间存在近似的倒数关系,因此具有层次性。  相似文献   
10.
目的为避免EIS,EN技术可能出现的问题,建立一个准确、高效的评价模型,以探究现役军用有机涂层防护性能。方法利用电化学阻抗谱(EIS)、电化学噪声(EN)技术分析了两种军车有机涂层在循环暴露试验中的腐蚀行为,提取低频阻抗模值|Z|_(0.1 Hz)与涂层噪声电阻R_n两种电化学评价参数作为自组织神经网络(SOM)的输入训练样本,同时结合支持向量机(SVM)方法建立涂层防护性能组合分类器。结果将涂层失效过程自适应地分为涂层防护性能良好、防护性能下降、基本失效三个阶段。结论所建立的SOM-SVM组合分类器对于辅助分析涂层防护性能具有可行性。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号