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1.
The typical parameters of acid precipitation are evaluated in the forest of Vallombrosa (Tuscan Appennines) during the dry period 1988-89. Individual rain events (dry and wet deposition) were sampled in a clearing of the forest and below the canopy of an evergreen tree as well as a deciduous broadleaf tree.

In atmospheric precipitation the pH values usually vary around 4.4, with neutralization in the hot season due to calcareous material from distant sources. Relatively large concentrations of Pb and Cd are found in rain, but only in a small amount in canopy leachate. Aluminium, manganese and iron are more significantly washed off than Pb and Cd.  相似文献   
2.
卫星遥感气溶胶虽然空间覆盖度高,但不同产品数据在准确性和适用性上存在显著差异.为了能够科学定量的衡量各个产品的优劣,选择最合适的气溶胶产品,该研究以数学统计为基础,提出了一种卫星遥感气溶胶产品评估体系,并依此确定了全球6个人口密集地区的最优卫星数据集,在此基础上开展了近10年的(2009—2018)气溶胶时空变化分析.结果表明暗像元算法在植被覆盖度高的地区表现最好,深蓝算法在亮地表的沙漠干旱地区更占优势,而暗像元-深蓝融合算法在土地类型复杂且气溶胶来源多变时得以突出.人口密集的6个区域中,除了区域A和区域B,其它地区的大气污染水平整体偏高.其中,A、B、E的气溶胶负荷呈下降变化,区域F基本不变,其余区域上升变化.评估体系的建立为气溶胶遥感产品的选取提供了新的衡量方法,且该文关于气溶胶时空分布及变化的分析可以为区域性气溶胶研究提供一定的参考价值.  相似文献   
3.
张勇  陈骥  张锋 《中国环境科学》2020,40(1):100-108
基于我国2000~2017年食用菌年产量数据,采用排放因子法估算了菌糠露天焚烧的污染物排放量,利用Mann-Kendall法和聚类分析法分析了排放量的时空分布特征,使用回归分析法预测了污染物的排放趋势.结果表明:(1)2000~2017年全国菌糠露天焚烧污染物排放量持续上升,PM2.5、CO2、CO、CH4、NMVOCs、PAHs、NOx、SO2累积排放量分别为1.40×106,3.48×108,1.99×107,8.43×105,2.08×106,3.00×104,6.34×105,8.29×104t;(2)污染物排放量较高的省区包括山东、黑龙江、浙江、湖南、江苏、福建和河南,排放量较低的省区包括贵州、宁夏、天津、北京、新疆、重庆、甘肃;(3)预计2021年菌糠焚烧污染物总排放量高达4.25×107t,其对生物质焚烧污染物总排放量的贡献率约为19.82%.我国菌糠露天焚烧污染物排放规模较大,应予以重点关注.  相似文献   
4.
The heterogeneous degradation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on five samples of natural Icelandic volcanic particles has been investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out under simulated atmospheric conditions using a coated wall flow tube (CWFT). The CWFT reactor was coupled to a blue light nitrogen oxides analyzer (NOx analyzer), and a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP) to monitor in real time the concentrations of NO2, NO and HONO, respectively. Under dark and ambient relative humidity conditions, the steady state uptake coefficients of NO2 varied significantly between the volcanic samples probably due to differences in magma composition and morphological variation related with the density of surface OH groups. The irradiation of the surface with simulated sunlight enhanced the uptake coefficients by a factor of three indicating that photo-induced processes on the surface of the dust occur. Furthermore, the product yields of NO and HONO were determined under both dark and simulated sunlight conditions. The relative humidity was found to influence the distribution of gaseous products, promoting the formation of gaseous HONO. A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed that supports our experimental observations. Regarding the atmospheric implications, our results suggest that the NO2 degradation on volcanic particles and the corresponding formation of HONO is expected to be significant during volcanic dust storms or after a volcanic eruption.  相似文献   
5.
为了解深圳市龙岗区大气颗粒物中多溴联苯醚的污染状况,于2017年1月、4月、8月和11月分别采集龙岗区大气颗粒物样品.利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC/MS)对深圳市龙岗区4个功能区(工业区、商业区、居民区和生态区)的80个大气颗粒物样品进行检测,得到PBDEs(多溴联苯醚)8种单体(BDE-28、BDE-47、BDE-99、BDE-100、BDE-153、BDE-154、BDE-183、BDE-209)的质量浓度,同时研究了大气颗粒物中PBDEs质量浓度的时空分布特征.结果表明:①深圳市龙岗区大气颗粒物中ρ(∑8PBDEs)(∑8PBDEs为PBDEs 8种单体的加和)范围为0.07~77.80 pg/m3,ρ(∑8PBDEs)年均值为(6.86±14.17)pg/m3.ρ(BDE-209)范围为0.01~76.23 pg/m3,年均值为(5.10±13.58)pg/m3,BDE-209为主要污染单体.② 4个功能区的ρ(∑8PBDEs)平均值大小顺序依次为工业区(13.65 pg/m3)>商业区(7.75 pg/m3)>生态区(3.95 pg/m3)>居民区(2.19 pg/m3),工业区是环境空气颗粒物中PBDEs的主要污染区.③ ρ(∑8PBDEs)平均值的季节性变化规律为春季(13.32 pg/m3)>冬季(9.18 pg/m3)>秋季(2.17 pg/m3)>夏季(1.51 pg/m3),符合深圳市亚热带海洋季风气温和气候对环境空气中颗粒物质量浓度的影响规律.研究显示,深圳市龙岗区大气颗粒物中PBDEs质量浓度处于较高水平,污染严重,建议减少含PBDEs产品的生产、使用和运输等活动,或找到更利于环境安全和人体健康的替代品,降低PBDEs对该地区的污染.   相似文献   
6.
大气自净能力指数的气候特征与应用研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
朱蓉  张存杰  梅梅 《中国环境科学》2018,38(10):3601-3610
为了定量地评估污染气象条件对空气污染的作用并实现对空气污染潜势的预报,本文在城市大气污染数值预报系统(CAPPS)预报原理的基础上,定义了大气自净能力指数,并分别给出了采用气象站观测资料和通过数值模拟计算大气自净能力指数的方法.基于气象站观测资料的全国大气自净能力指数分析计算表明,全国大气自净能力最差的地区分布在四川盆地和新疆塔里木盆地,大气自净能力最强的地区分布在青藏高原、蒙古高原、云贵高原、以及东北平原和三江平原、山东半岛和海南岛;1961~2017年,京津冀、长三角和珠三角地区的大气自净能力指数呈下降的变化趋势,全年低自净能力日数呈上升的变化趋势.采用大气自净能力指数评估2014年北京APEC会议期间大气污染防控效果,表明在11月8~10日极端不利扩散气象条件发生时,减排措施使北京市空气质量AQI平均降低77%,使京津冀平原地区11个城市的空气质量AQI平均降低37%.基于国家气候中心月动力延伸气候预测模式(DERF2.0)的预报产品和中尺度模式(WRF),建立了可以预测全国未来40d逐日大气自净能力指数的延伸期-月尺度大气污染潜势预测系统,回报实验表明,在大多数情况下可以提前15d预报出大气重污染过程;月尺度的大气重污染过程预报效果更大程度上取决于月动力延伸气候预测模式(DERF2.0)的预报准确率.  相似文献   
7.
基于成都市2013年6月~2015年5月期间由Mie散射激光雷达探测的大气消光系数廓线资料,发现混合层以上在颗粒物消光和分子消光之间一致存在一个S型的过渡区,利用sigmoid函数对此分布形态进行模拟,通过计算该函数上下曲率最大点所在的高度,据此提出了颗粒物分界层Mie散射激光雷达识别的sigmoid算法.针对该算法模拟效果的分析表明,颗粒物分界层过渡区附近大气消光系数理论廓线和实测廓线保持了高度的相关性,二者在春夏秋冬四季的相关系数(R)分别为0.9971±0.0052、0.9935±0.0167、0.9979±0.0038和0.9990±0.0021(均通过α=0.05的显著性检验).基于sigmoid算法计算的颗粒物分界层过渡区与成都市温江站探空资料得到的逆温层之间存在很好的对应关系.  相似文献   
8.
Atmospheric aerosols are an important contributing factor to turbidity in urban areas besides having impact on health. Aerosol characteristics show a high degree of variability in space and time as anthropogenic share of total aerosol loading is quite substantial and is essential to monitor the aerosol features over long time scales. In the present study extensive observations of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total columnar ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried over a tropical urban city of Hyderabad, India. Significant variations of AOD have been observed during course of the day with low values of AOD during morning and evening hours and high values during afternoon hours. Spectral variation of AOD exhibits high AOD at smaller wavelengths and vice versa except a slight enhancement in AOD at 500 nm. Anomalies in AOD, particulate matter and black carbon concentrations have been observed during May, 2003. Back trajectory analysis of air mass during these episodes suggested variation in air mass trajectories. Analysis of the results suggests that air trajectories from land region north of study area cause high loading of atmospheric aerosols. The results are discussed in the paper.  相似文献   
9.
The evaluation of certain vascular plants that grow in the city of Madrid as biomonitors of SO2 air pollution in urban environments has been carried out. Total concentration of sulphur in leaves of the chosen higher plants as well as other parameters in close relation to this contaminant (visible injury symptoms, chlorophyll a- and b-content and peroxidase activity) have been determined in order to study the spatial distribution and temporal changes in SO2 deposition. Results obtained show that coniferous species such as Pinus pinea, were more sensitive to SO2 atmospheric concentration than leafy species as Quercux ilex subspecies ballota and, in the same way, bush species, such asPyracantha coccinea and Nerium oleander, were more sensitive than wooded species, such as Cedrus deodaraandPinus pinea, respectively. There is a higher accumulation of sulphur in vegetable species located near highways and dense traffic incidence roads and near areas with high density of population. The minimum values for accumulation of SO2 were registered in winter and spring seasons (from January to April) due to the vegetative stop; while maximum values are obtained during the summer season (from June to September), due to the stoma opening. The highest increments in sulphur concentration, calculated as the difference between two consecutive months, are obtained in May and June for all considered species except forCedrus deodara and Pyracantha coccinea, both species have few seasonal changes during the whole year. Some species are more sensitive to natural washing than others, showing a decrease in sulphur concentration after rainfall periods.  相似文献   
10.
Although interdisciplinary collaboration to address a singleenvironmental problem is more common than in the past, all toooften the significant atmospheric problems of our day such asstratospheric ozone depletion, acidic deposition or climaticchange are addressed on a single issue basis. Systems analysis isa way of looking at a problem in a holistic, integrated fashionthrough including as many as practicable of the importantcomponents, and the linkages among them. Systems analysisoften begins with a conceptual model which, even if lackingquantification, is a useful means of changing ones thinking to amulti-issue approach. If possible, conceptual models areoperationalized by quantification (using the best availablescientific knowledge) of the stocks and flows of the relevantcomponents of the problem, and the processes that are involved.In this paper, a systems approach to food production is used tolink various atmospheric issues such as regional acidification andclimatic change. A spreadsheet model of food demand andproduction in various world regions examined the possible effectof atmospheric change on how much food we can grow, andwhether or not we may be able to meet the increased demand inthe year 2025. Using relatively modest changes in factors ofagricultural production, the spreadsheet model calculated globalshortfalls by the year 2025 of the order of 10 to 20% in someimportant agricultural crops, despite the improvements in cropproduction factors that are envisaged by the Food andAgricultural Organization from now until the year 2010, and thatwere extrapolated in this paper to 2025. The model alsocalculated that climatic change in combination with eithertropospheric ozone or increased UV-B radiation caused bydepletion of the stratospheric ozone layer may in general makethe situation worse than in the case of climatic change alone.Given the large uncertainties in the input data, the results in thispaper should not be viewed as predictions but rather as anexample of taking a relatively simple systems approach to foodproduction using a spreadsheet model, and calculating the effectsthat various aspects of atmospheric change might have upon it.Therefore, it is extremely important to know the effects uponcrop production factors of climatic change, tropospheric ozoneand increased UV-B radiation not only as individual issues, butalso of their combined effect since it is probable that in manyregions they will occur in combination.  相似文献   
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