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1.
空气微生物污染的监测及研究进展   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
空气微生物不但与环境空气质量、空气污染和人体健康密切相关,并且还与自然生态平衡及许多生命现象直接相关,在自然界的物质循环中起着非常重要的作用。文章从空气微生物的污染现状、采样方法、粒度分布、分离鉴定、微生物评价、时空分布等方面对空气微生物的研究现状进行了综述,并对空气微生物在环境监测中的研究和前景进行了展望,建议空气微生物污染监测应常态化,应控制和开展对大气细颗粒或超细颗粒物对人体健康的影响研究。  相似文献   

2.
综述了二噁英对人体健康的危害特性, 以及我国生活垃圾焚烧厂二噁英排放浓度水平,及其周边环境空气和土壤中二噁英污染浓度水平、人群暴露途径、剂量和健康影响。指出,现有研究显示,我国生活垃圾焚烧排放的二噁英浓度在合理范围之内,垃圾焚烧厂周边人群二噁英暴露量普遍低于世界卫生组织(WHO)推荐的容许标准,但也有研究发现,垃圾焚烧会导致周边环境介质中二噁英浓度水平增高。提出,应重点关注垃圾焚烧排放二噁英的长期低剂量暴露对人群健康的影响。  相似文献   

3.
垃圾填埋场地下水污染对居民健康的风险评价   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5  
调查了某垃圾填埋场地下水和周边居民饮用水中的As、Hg等重金属和挥发酚等有机物的污染状况,运用美国环保局的健康风险计算模型,评估了该垃圾填埋场地下水对周边居民的潜在健康风险。结果表明,各类人群对4种有阈化合物的饮食和皮肤暴露的终身健康危险度在8.2×10^-11~1.3×10^-10之间,均低于可以接受的风险水平10^-6;对As的终身超额健康危险度在3.1×10^-7~4.9×10^-7之间,表明地下水中砷污染对居民潜在的致癌风险不明显。各类人群通过皮肤对Hg、As、Cd和挥发酚的暴露剂量比通过饮水暴露的剂量高0.7倍~14.5倍,皮肤暴露将是地下水影响人体健康并构成潜在风险的重要途径。  相似文献   

4.
对成都市中心城区娱乐区、居民区、商业区和城市广场等日常活动区域代表点的地表灰尘中的重金属进行监测,分析其污染分布特征,并应用美国EPA人体暴露风险评价方法对地表灰尘进行了健康风险评价。结果表明,研究区域地表灰尘重金属污染较为严重,Pb、Zn、Cu、Ni、Cr、Cd的平均含量分别为成都市土壤背景值的1.18~77.57倍,其中Cd的富集因子大于10,污染极强且富集在颗粒物中。暴露模型计算表明,重金属慢性每日平均暴露量为手-口摄入量皮肤吸收量吸入空气量,经手-口接触行为是人体地表灰尘暴露风险的主要途径。儿童重金属非致癌风险CrPbCdCuZnNi,成人重金属非致癌风险PbCrCdCuZnNi,且均小于非致癌风险阈值1,不会对城市人群造成明显伤害。重金属致癌风险CrCdNi,均低于致癌风险阈值,表明不具有致癌风险,但潜在生态危害值得重视。  相似文献   

5.
苏中地区小麦籽粒重金属含量水平及健康风险   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
通过随机采集苏中地区43组农田土壤和小麦籽粒样本,测定其中Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd含量,分析小麦籽粒的重金属富集能力及其影响因素,并评估食用本地产小麦的健康风险。结果表明:研究区土壤样品中Cd超标率为14.0%;小麦籽粒样品中Cd、Pb超标率分别为4.65%、27.9%。小麦籽粒对重金属富集能力强弱依次为ZnCdCuPb,且其对Cd的富集能力与土壤p H值呈显著负相关(P0.01,r=-0.41),需关注土壤酸化对小麦籽粒Cd富集的影响。不同暴露人群食用本地产小麦风险系数(HQ)和风险指数(HI)均在可接受水平内,若考虑其他暴露途径,仍有可能危害当地居民健康。  相似文献   

6.
以石家庄市黄壁庄水库和岗南水库及上游河流为研究对象,对1 700余种典型特征污染物开展定量或半定量分析,获得了27 000余个检测数据,共筛选出98种特征污染物,建立了石家庄市饮用水水源地的污染源排放数据库。利用美国环境保护署推荐的环境健康风险评价模型,对筛查出的化学污染物、生物毒性和病原微生物等污染因子进行健康风险评价。结果显示,各采样点污染物的非致癌风险值(HQ)均小于阈值1,不会对暴露人群的身体健康造成明显的非致癌危害。各采样点污染物的致癌风险值(LCR)均在10-6数量级以下,对人体的致癌风险较弱。  相似文献   

7.
以南方某城市的10个地铁车站作为研究对象,分析空气可吸入颗粒物(PM10)样品中10种重金属砷(As)、铬(Cr)、镉(Cd)、镍(Ni)、汞(Hg)、铅(Pb)、锰(Mn)、锑(Sb)、锡(Se)、铜(Cu)的质量浓度。采用美国环境保护局(US EPA)推荐的健康风险评估模型,对重金属通过呼吸途径引起的人群健康风险进行评估。结果表明,地铁车站空气PM10中的重金属Cr和As对人群可能存在潜在致癌健康风险;重金属Mn、Cu、Pb、Se、Hg和Sb对人群的非致癌健康风险较小。提出,应进一步关注地铁车站空气PM10中重金属对暴露人群可能存在的健康风险,采取有针对性的措施进行防护。  相似文献   

8.
隐孢子虫(Cryptosporidium sp.)是寄生于人和其他多种动物胃肠道的一类致病性原生动物,可经介水性途径传播造成人群感染,给公共卫生安全带来隐患,而娱乐性用水近年来已成为隐孢子虫介水性传播的主要媒介。定量微生物风险评价(QMRA)是评价和控制细菌、病毒等病原微生物健康风险的有效方法之一,也可应用于隐孢子虫等寄生虫的健康风险评价。按照QMRA框架,就娱乐性用水隐孢子虫健康风险评价中危害识别、暴露评估、剂量-效应评估和风险表征等方面的研究概况作综述,旨在为国内开展水源性隐孢子虫健康风险评价与管理提供思路。  相似文献   

9.
在暴露情景假设和评估模型的确定下,有必要对污染场地的风险计算结果有影响的模型参数开展敏感性分析,以便在开展土壤健康风险评估工作时,提高评估的准确性和科学性,节约修复成本。以上海市某污染场地为例,对模型参数敏感性开展敏感性分析。贡献率结果显示,经口摄入土壤和皮肤接触土壤为场地表层污染土壤的主要致癌风险暴露途径。敏感性分析结果显示,致癌风险与体重呈反向变化,当体重参数减小时,暴露风险将向不利的方向移动。当体重参数在大范围减小时,敏感程度较高。致癌风险与暴露周期、暴露频率、每日摄入土壤量、暴露皮肤表面积、皮肤表面土壤粘附系数呈同向变化,当这些参数增大时,暴露风险将向不利的方向移动;其中暴露周期和暴露频率的敏感程度中等。上海市敏感用地下苯并(a)蒽、苯并(b)荧蒽、茚并(1,2,3-c,d)芘、苯并(a)芘、二苯并(a,h)蒽风险控制值分别为0.726、0.726、0.726、0.072 6、0.072 6 mg/kg。  相似文献   

10.
空气中的微生物与环境空气质量、空气污染和人体健康密切相关,在自然界的物质循环中起着非常重要的作用。文章对空气中微生物的污染现状、粒度分布、微生物评价等研究成果进行了综述,并对空气中微生物在环境监测中的研究和前景进行了展望。  相似文献   

11.
In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures.Population-based exposures to NO2 and O3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality.Health impact of NO2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen.Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups.  相似文献   

12.
城市环境铅污染及其对人体健康的影响   总被引:16,自引:5,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
综述了城市土壤和大气环境中铅的污染特征及食品和饮水中的铅污染水平,探讨了人体铅暴露的途径及城市环境铅污染对儿童健康的危害.提出应加强城市环境铅污染的调查研究,开展人体铅暴露的潜在风险评价,为保证城市居民健康安全提供科学依据.  相似文献   

13.
This paper presents an integrated exposure monitoring system, based on an expansion of existing air quality monitoring systems using dispersion modelling. The system allows: (1) identifying geographical areas whose inhabitants are most exposed to ambient pollution; (2) identifying how many people in an area are exposed to concentrations of pollution exceeding air quality guidelines; (3) describing the exposure of population subgroups (e.g. children); (4) planning pollution abatement measures and quantifying their effects; (5) establishing risk assessment and management programs, and (6) investigating the short- and long-term effects of both pollutants and pollution sources on public health. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to discover it, exposure estimation must provide data that reflects both spatial and temporal variations. Estimates of pollution exposure are obtained using an integrated approach that combines results of measurements from monitoring programs with dispersion calculations. These values can serve as estimates for individual short-term or long-term exposure. The grouped data allows the expression of ambient pollution concentrations as the spatial distribution of estimates such as the mean or 98th percentile of such compounds as SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. This integrated approach has been combined into a single software package, AirQUIS.  相似文献   

14.
Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States' 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Results are reported by Resource Planning Act (RPA) reporting region and integrated by forest type using multivariate clustering. Estimates of sulfate deposition for forested areas had decreasing trends (1994-2000) across RPA regions that were statistically significant for North and South RPA regions. Nitrate deposition rates were relatively constant for the 1994 to 2000 period, but the South RPA region had a statistically decreasing trend. The North and South RPA regions experienced the highest ammonium deposition rates and showed slightly decreasing trends. Ozone concentrations were highest in portions of the Pacific Coast RPA region and relatively high across much of the South RPA region. Both the South and Rocky Mountain RPA regions had an increasing trend in ozone exposure. Ozone-induced foliar injury to sensitive species was recorded in all regions except for the Rocky Mountain region. The multivariate analysis showed that the oak-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine forest types were generally exposed to more air pollution than other forest types, and the redwood, western white pine, and larch forest types were generally exposed to less. These findings offer a new approach to national air pollution assessments and are intended to help focus research and planning initiatives related to air pollution and forest health.  相似文献   

15.
以广东某典型铅锌矿周边地区为研究区域,通过实地监测空气中颗粒物重金属浓度水平,并结合暴露量计算,进行健康风险评价。结果表明:研究区大气TSP浓度满足所属功能区环境空气质量标准要求,但PM10浓度在个别监测点出现有单次超标现象,铅平均浓度符合年平均参照标准要求,镉平均浓度则超年平均参照标准要求;颗粒物重金属分析表明,该区域气象扩散条件较好,对照点中重金属含量与其他监控监测点的含量相当;靠近冶炼厂或铅锌矿的降尘重金属总量比远离的高,所以冶炼厂和铅锌矿对环境大气中重金属含量还是有一定的影响。大气颗粒物重金属暴露人群风险评价结果表明,研究区域不存在非致癌健康风险,但个别监测点则存在镉致癌风险警戒级别。  相似文献   

16.
Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. Difficulties in interpreting studies of health effects of exposure to air pollution arise in estimating exposure. Until recently, studies of effects of air pollution have relied on pollution exposure measurements obtained from fixed location air pollution stations monitoring outside air (to evaluate compliance with air quality standards, rather than to examine population exposure). However, recent evidence suggests that there are substantial differences between air pollution levels measured at such sites and levels to which people are actually exposed, i.e. personal exposure. The present study examines effects of ambient urban air pollution on persons suffering from asthma, healthy non-asthmatic subjects and school children (in 2 Canadian cities, Toronto and Hamilton). Air pollution exposure is being assessed by data obtained from: (1) conventional abatement oriented fixed location air pollution monitoring stations, (2) an extensive population oriented network, (3) inside and (4) outside structures (homes and schools) as well as (5) personal air pollution samplers. The data indicate variability in these different estimates of exposure which have implications on health effects assessment.  相似文献   

17.
近年来,空气污染已成为长三角地区最关键的环境问题之一,气溶胶颗粒物(PM)是最主要的污染物之一。生物气溶胶作为颗粒物的重要组成部分,可能对空气质量和人体健康产生不利影响。利用高通量测序方法研究了江苏省泰州2019年11月至2020年1月期间发生沙尘和霾污染时生物气溶胶中细菌群落结构组成特征。结果表明:冬季沙尘天和霾天气溶胶细菌群落结构及多样性呈现不同的变化特征,霾天细菌群落多样性、均匀度以及基于进化的多样性明显高于夏季优良天,粒径差异增大;沙尘天细菌群落结构变化和霾天正好相反,不仅大气微生物丰富度会降低,细菌群落结构的多样性和均匀度也会降低。优良天粗细颗粒的细菌群落组成和优势种相似度较高,沙尘和霾污染天粗细颗粒间的细菌组成差异较大,病原细菌的种类和相对丰度也明显增加,优势类群中致病菌浓度上升的主要有假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、雷氏菌属(Ralstonia)、肠球菌属(Enterococcus)、拟杆菌属(Bacteroides)、埃希氏菌-志贺氏菌属(Escherichia-Shigella)、链球菌属(Streptococcus)等,增加了人类、动物及农业生产活动潜在的暴露风险。基于丰度热图分析污染天各粒径的细菌群落结构相似性,沙尘天大部分粒径聚在一起,粒径间的细菌组成相似性较高;霾天样品的粒径分布总体较分散,随着污染加重,粒径差异有增大的趋势。  相似文献   

18.
Microbial risk was quantified to assess human health risk as a result of exposure to E. coli in reclaimed wastewater irrigation. Monitoring data on E. coli were collected from pond water in paddy rice plots during the growing season. Five treatments were used and each was triplicated to evaluate the changes in E. coli concentrations in experiments performed in 2003 and 2004. The Beta-Poisson model was used to estimate the microbial risk of pathogen ingestion among farmers and neighboring children. A Monte Carlo simulation (10,000 trials) was conducted to estimate the risk associated with uncertainty. In this study, risk values ranged from 10−4 to 10−8. UV-disinfected irrigation water showed a lower risk value than others, and its level was within the range of the actual paddy rice field with surface water. Agricultural activity was thought to be safer after 1–2 days, when the paddy field was irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. Also, children were found to have a greater risk of infection with E. coli. This paper should be viewed as a first step in the application of quantitative microbial risk assessment of wastewater reuse in paddy rice culture.  相似文献   

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