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This study was conducted to determine status of heavy metals in agricultural soils under different patterns of land use. A total of 38, 40 and 45 soil samples for bare vegetable field, greenhouse vegetable field, and grain crop field were respectively taken from surface layer (0–20 cm) from selected experimental areas away from suburbs of ten counties (or districts or cities) in four provinces or municipalities of Huabei plain in north China. Information of crop production history, including varieties, rotation systems and fertilizer use, at the corresponding sampling sites was surveyed. Soil total Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, As and Hg were measured. The results showed that the contents of total Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, and Hg in the soil samples, especially soil total Cu and Zn contents, were higher in the bare vegetable field and the greenhouse vegetable field than that in the grain crop field. Long-term use of excessive chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the bare vegetable field and the greenhouse vegetable field contributed to the accumulation of Cu, Zn, and other heavy metals in the soils. The contents of total Cu, Zn, and other heavy metals in soils increased with increasing vegetable production history of the research areas. In comparison with the grain crop field, the comprehensive pollution indices of the seven soil heavy metals and the single-factor pollution indices of soil Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Hg based on the second criterion of Environmental Quality Standard for Soils were significantly higher in the bare vegetable field and the greenhouse vegetable field. Soils from the greenhouse vegetable field were slightly contaminated according to the comprehensive pollution index, and soils from the bare vegetable field and the grain crop field were at the warning heavy metal pollution level. The soils were contaminated with Cd according to the single-factor pollution index. The Cd pollution was relatively more serious in the bare vegetable field and the greenhouse vegetable field than that in the grain crop field. The soils selected with different land use patterns were not contaminated with Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, As and Hg.  相似文献
2.
The concentrations, distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 30 agricultural soil and 16 vegetable samples collected from subtropical Shunde area, an important manufacturing center in China. The total PAHs ranged from 33.7 to 350 μg/kg in soils, and 82 to 1,258 μg/kg in vegetables. The most abundant individual PAHs are phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene for soil samples, and anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene for vegetable samples. Average vegetable–soil ratios of total PAHs were 2.20 for leafy vegetables and 1.27 for fruity vegetables. Total PAHs in vegetable samples are not significantly correlated to those in corresponding soil samples. Principal component analyses were conducted to distinguish samples on basis of their distribution in each town, soil type and vegetable specie. Relatively abundant soil PAHs were found in town Jun’an, Beijiao, Chencun, Lecong and Ronggui, while abundant vegetable PAHs were observed in town Jun’an, Lecong, Xingtan, Daliang and Chenchun. The highest level of total PAHs were found in vegetable soil, followed by pond sediment and “stacked soil” on pond banks. The PAHs contents in leafy vegetables are higher than those in fruity vegetables. Some PAH compound ratios suggest the PAHs derived from incomplete combustion of petroleum, coal and refuse from power generation and ceramic manufacturing, and paint spraying on furniture, as well as sewage irrigation from textile industries. Soil PAHs contents have significant logarithmic correlation with total organic carbon, which demonstrates the importance of soil organic matter as sorbent to prevent losses of PAHs.  相似文献
3.
We present a novel methodology to integrate qualitative knowledge from different case studies on Global Change related issues into a single framework. The method is based on the concept of qualitative differential equations (QDEs) which represents a mathematically well-defined approach to investigate classes of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) used in conventional modeling exercises. These classes are defined by common qualitative features, e.g., monotonicity, signs, etc. Using the QSIM-algorithm it is possible to derive the set of possible solutions of all ODEs in the class. By this one can formulate a common, qualitatively specified cause–effect scheme valid for all case studies. The scheme is validated by testing it against the actually observed histories in the study regions with respect to their reconstruction by the corresponding QDE. The method is outlined theoretically and exemplary applied to the problem of land-use changes due to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. It is shown that the seven case-studies used can be described by a single cause–effect scheme which thus constitutes a pattern of Global Change. As a generally valid prerequisite for sustainability of this kind of land-use the presence of wage labor is shown to represent a decisive factor. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
4.
长江下游典型滨海地区农业土壤重金属污染特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为揭示长江下游滨海地区农业土壤重金属污染状况,以滨江临海的南通市为例,网格化布点,采集表层农业土壤样品共计334个,对其重金属Cu、Pb、Cr、As、Hg含量进行了测定分析.结果表明,研究区域表层农业土壤中各重金属含量均已超过其背景值,且以Pb污染最为严重;区域性差异较大,以滨海的如东、海门、启东污染最为严重,且以海门、启东As含量最高;各重金属间相关性不显著,来源途径不止一种.从而提出南通市农业土壤重金属污染的防治应立足于防重于治的方针,着重滨海地区,以Pb、As污染源为主,并对污染土壤进行修复.  相似文献
5.
惠州农业土壤、灌溉水和农产品中有机氯农药的残留   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
用气相色谱法(GC-ECD)对惠州市51个农业土壤样品、12个灌溉水样品和21个农产品样品中的HCHs和DDTs残留量进行了测定.HCHs平均含量分别为土壤1.66μg/kg、灌溉水5.86ng/L、农产品24.74μg/kg;DDTs平均含量分别为土壤4.98μg/kg、灌溉水2.06ng/L、农产品41.72μg/kg,土壤中有机氯农药通过多种方式进入到水体及农产品中.从HCHs和DDTs异构体组成可以看出,环境中绝大多数农药残留是由于历史上使用造成的,个别地区可能还有新的污染输入.同其它地区相比,惠州农业土壤和灌溉水中的有机氯农药残留水平较低,但农产品尤其是蔬菜中DDTs富集程度较高.  相似文献
6.
Rapid increase in industrialization and agricultural activities to meet the population need has led to environmental pollution. The major revolution in agricultural production is mainly due to increased use of pesticides and fertilizers. Soil act as a major sink for majority of pesticides applied on agricultural crops. Among the organochlorines, endosulfan is the most commonly used pesticide, hence this study concentrates on the persistence and distribution behaviour of endosulfan under field conditions. The result showed that the alpha endosulfan concentrations were very minimum (0.98 mg/kg of soil) in all the four fields under study (Nazarath, Othikadu, Ekkadu and Ekkadukandigai of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu). Where as beta endosulfan concentration at the time of application was 6.39 mg/kg and declined to 0.8 mg/kg on soil at 150th day. The endosulfan sulfate concentration was 11.8 mg/kg in soil at 15th day and then concentration declined to 2.2 mg/kg at 150th day. Field run-off samples showed maximum residue levels (0.024 mg/l) at the early irrigation period. While plant foliar parts showed maximum concentrations of α-endosulfan (43.4 mg/kg), β-endosulfan (40.6 mg/kg) and endosulfan sulfate (20.1 mg/kg). At harvest stage, rice grain and husk also had lower concentrations of endosulfan sulfate (2.2 and 0.09 mg/kg), respectively.  相似文献
7.
采用现场采样与室内测试方法测定了会泽某铅锌矿周边农田土壤中Cd、As、Pb、Cr、Cu、Zn、Ni的含量,利用地积累指数法、潜在生态指数法对其土壤环境质量进行了评价,并应用US EPA推荐的健康风险评价法对重金属的健康风险进行了初步评价。结果表明,7种重金属均存在不同程度的富集或污染。多种重金属潜在生态风险指数属于中等及以上的风险状态,重金属潜在生态风险指数排序为Cd > Pb > As > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cr。7种重金属在3种暴露途径下对儿童的非致癌健康风险均大于成人,但对成人、儿童均不存在显著的非致癌健康影响、非致癌健康总风险。As、Ni、Cr、Cd重金属的致癌风险值与4种元素总致癌风险值均未超出10-6~10-4的范围,尚不具备致癌风险。  相似文献
8.
通过龙门山区域的德阳市6个县市农用地土壤中镉的采样监测,分析了该区域镉的分布特征及区域分异原因,并对其环境生态风险进行了评价。结果表明,德阳市农用地土壤中镉含量总体水平为0.11~4.68 mg/kg,呈现西北到东南逐渐降低的分布特征;西北部绵竹和什邡市农用地土壤中镉出现超标的范围较广,2个城市约62.5%的监测点土壤中镉出现超标,且绵竹市农用地土壤中镉超标程度和生态风险程度最重,绵竹地区约25%的监测点土壤中镉出现了轻中度超标;监测区域土壤中镉出现较重生态风险点共有4个,均出现在绵竹;但较高含量的镉在该区域并非大范围连片存在;区域农用地土壤中镉异常的来源主要为龙门山中段的地质背景和部分以矿石为原料企业的综合影响。  相似文献
9.
为了分析杭州地区农业土壤重金属的分布特征及其环境意义,通过现场采样和室内分析检测的方法,对杭州市各区县不同作物农业土壤表层土中的Hg、As、Cu、Pb、Cr、Cd 6种重金属元素进行检测,并对其分布特征进行了分析。结果表明,杭州地区农业土壤中除As外,其他5种重金属的平均含量均低于且接近浙江省土壤背景值,个别采样点的重金属含量超过了土壤环境质量国家二级标准。总体上,杭州地区农业土壤处于安全水平。通过重金属的区域分布特征分析表明,余杭区和富阳市农业土壤中重金属平均含量普遍高于其他区域。萧山区和建德市部分农业土壤则存在Cu和Hg含量较高的情况,而淳安县农业土壤中重金属含量差异较大,土壤中出现了As、Cr和Cd含量最大值。不同作物的农业土壤重金属含量存在一定的差异,但不明显。水稻田和蔬菜地的土壤中,重金属含量较其他作物种植类型的土壤中含量高;叶菜类(蔬菜、茶叶)作物土壤中的Cd含量要比根茎类(水稻)、茄果类(水果)及其他作物种植类型的土壤中的含量低。目前杭州地区土壤中6种重金属含量均对作物的直接危害不大,但由于萧山区个别采样点Cu含量严重超标,淳安县土壤中Cd受外源性来源影响也已较明显,需要相关部门加大监管力度,防止污染事件发生。同时,为防止农业土壤中重金属含量进一步升高,需要加大大气降尘监测与治理、废气污染监管与控制治理。  相似文献
10.
于2018年4—6月采集了江苏省10个市的茶园和农田表层土壤样品,采用气相色谱-三重四级杆质谱仪分析样品中12种拟除虫菊酯类农药的质量比和组成。结果表明,江苏省茶园和农田土壤中广泛检出拟除虫菊酯类农药,总量分别为27.1~50.7,56.9~97.0 ng/g。研究区域的拟除虫菊酯类农药含量存在差异,但组成相近,均是高效氯氟氰菊酯和联苯菊酯的比例较高。与国内其他地区土壤相比,江苏省茶园和农田土壤中拟除虫菊酯含量处于中等水平。  相似文献
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