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1.
Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost‐effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer‐aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost‐effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15–111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m2. We used spectrogram cross‐correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. La Actividad Vocal como un Índice Escalable y de Bajo Costo del Tamaño de Colonia de las Aves Marinas  相似文献   
2.
Despite the widespread field and laboratory research works there are still a lot of unknown aspects about the cold in-place recycling. This paper presents the outcomes of a five year evaluation of a major highway in Iran which had been rehabilitated by cold in-place recycling. Before starting the rehabilitation process, a comprehensive field survey was performed. During the pavement surveying, type, severity and reason of distresses were investigated and PCI parameter was calculated. Furthermore, both destructive and nondestructive tests were carried out to evaluate the pavement condition and estimate the remaining life. On the basis of these investigations studied highway was divided to six design sections. Based on technical analysis four sections were recycled whereas two other sections were rehabilitated with the conventional cold milling and overlay method. Afterwards, the pavement performance was monitored during the next 5 years. After about six months of monitoring, structural failures were detected in about 10% of recycled areas. Based on field surveying, low compaction and load bearing of subgrade materials and lack of high quality unbound pavement layers accompanied by some shortcomings in recycled layer resulted in undesirable results in these areas. Based on obtained results and performed analysis a practical flowchart was presented which could be used as a project selection guideline.  相似文献   
3.
试论石油企业环境监测机构的现状及发展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
文章分析了石油企业环境监测机构的现状,明确了石油企业环境监测机构的工作立足点。同时,在中国石油天然气集团公司创建综合性国际能源公司、深化HSE体系推进的大背景下,对各油气田企业环境监测机构的未来与发展进行探讨,并结合实际提出较为合理的发展设想。  相似文献   
4.
文章介绍了实验室常用的生物监测方法,从生物学角度来判断环境污染的程度,为环境质量的监测和评价提供依据。着重对细菌学监测、隐孢子虫和贾第鞭毛虫的监测、浮游动植物监测、生物综合毒性监测等进行了专门论述。  相似文献   
5.
介绍了一种对环境情况进行监测的系统软硬件设计方案.以ADI公司的ADuC824单片机为核心芯片,结合各类传感器和外围元器件构建,系统集成了环境信息采集、信息识别转换、双机通信和微电子电路等多种新技术,采用多通道实时采集数据,并解决了环境参数复杂难数字化的问题,实现了对环境参数全面高效的监测.  相似文献   
6.
Abstract: Concerns about pollinator declines have grown in recent years, yet the ability to detect changes in abundance, taxonomic richness, and composition of pollinator communities is hampered severely by the lack of data over space and time. Citizen scientists may be able to extend the spatial and temporal extent of pollinator monitoring programs. We developed a citizen‐science monitoring protocol in which we trained 13 citizen scientists to observe and classify floral visitors at the resolution of orders or super families (e.g., bee, wasp, fly) and at finer resolution within bees (superfamily Apoidea) only. We evaluated the protocol by comparing data collected simultaneously at 17 sites by citizen scientists (observational data set) and by professionals (specimen‐based data set). The sites differed with respect to the presence and age of hedgerows planted to improve habitat quality for pollinators. We found significant, positive correlations among the two data sets for higher level taxonomic composition, honey bee (Apis mellifera) abundance, non‐Apis bee abundance, bee richness, and bee community similarity. Results for both data sets also showed similar trends (or lack thereof) in these metrics among sites differing in the presence and age of hedgerows. Nevertheless, citizen scientists did not observe approximately half of the bee groups collected by professional scientists at the same sites. Thus, the utility of citizen‐science observational data may be restricted to detection of community‐level changes in abundance, richness, or similarity over space and time, and citizen‐science observations may not reliably reflect the abundance or frequency of occurrence of specific pollinator species or groups.  相似文献   
7.
为解决油田管理中面临的用工总量多、生产建设成本高和管理难度大的问题,胜利油田进行了大规模数字化建设。通过电参数、示功图、产液量自动采集传输,对油井进行综合评价分析,提出节电意见,确保油井安全正常运转,有效地减少了油田生产用工需求,进一步促进了油田管理的现代化。  相似文献   
8.
稠油热采系统综合能耗监测方法及评价   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
栾海波 《油气田环境保护》2012,22(6):44-46,88,89
针对目前稠油热采系统节能措施和节能产品对某一环节单个节能产品的节能效果进行检测、评价的现状,提出了将稠油热采系统作为一个整体,采取组合节能措施及产品,给出了稠油热采系统的能耗监测流程、监测要求、程序与方法、数据分析评价方法等。形成了稠油热采系统综合能耗监测数据分析及效果评价方法。  相似文献   
9.
Abstract: The outcomes of systematic conservation planning (process of assessing, implementing, and managing conservation areas) are rarely reported or measured formally. A lack of consistent or rigorous evaluation in conservation planning has fueled debate about the extent to which conservation assessment (identification, design, and prioritization of potential conservation areas) ultimately influences actions on the ground. We interviewed staff members of a nongovernmental organization, who were involved in 5 ecoregional assessments across North and South America and the Asia‐Pacific region. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews with open and closed questions about the perceived purpose, outputs, and outcomes of the ecoregional assessments in which respondents were involved. Using qualitative data collected from those interviews, we investigated the types and frequency of benefits perceived to have emerged from the ecoregional assessments and explored factors that might facilitate or constrain the flow of benefits. Some benefits reflected the intended purpose of ecoregional assessments. Other benefits included improvements in social interactions, attitudes, and institutional knowledge. Our results suggest the latter types of benefits enable ultimate benefits of assessments, such as guiding investments by institutional partners. Our results also showed a clear divergence between the respondents’ expectations and perceived outcomes of implementation of conservation actions arising from ecoregional assessments. Our findings suggest the need for both a broader perspective on the contribution of assessments to planning goals and further evaluation of conservation assessments.  相似文献   
10.
We analyzed whether decision‐making triggers increase accountability of adaptive‐management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive‐management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in‐depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive‐management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive‐management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. Detonadores de la Toma de Decisiones en el Manejo Adaptativo  相似文献   
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