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1.
In recent decades, many changes have occurred in the approach to financing and operating water services in developing countries. The demand‐responsive approach is now adopted in many countries in a context of donor‐supported decentralization processes, which gives more responsibility to end users. However, the government's responsibility at different levels is enforced by the international recognition of the human right to water. This paper examines specific actions that build the role of local government authorities in this scenario. A collaboration between an international NGO and a rural district in Tanzania from 2006 to 2009 is used as an action research case study that is representative of local capacity‐building needs in decentralized contexts and rural areas. Three main challenges were detected: i) lack of reliable information; ii) poor allocation of resources in terms of equity; and iii) lack of long‐term community management support from the district. Two mechanisms were established: i) water point mapping as a tool for information and planning; and ii) a District Water and Sanitation Unit Support (DWUS) for community management. The results show how the framework provided by the goal of human right to water helps to define useful strategies for equity‐oriented planning and post‐project support at the local level.  相似文献   
2.
As a secondary pollutant of photochemical pollution, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has attracted a close attention. A four-month campaign was conducted at a rural site in North China Plain (NCP) including the measurement of PAN, O3, NOx, PM2.5, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), photolysis rate constants of NO2 and O3 and meteorological parameters to investigate the wintertime characterization of photochemistry from November 2018 to February 2019. The results showed that the maximum and mean values of PAN were 4.38 and 0.93 ± 0.67 ppbv during the campaign, respectively. The PAN under different PM2.5 concentrations from below 75 μg/m3 up to 250 μg/m3, showed different diurnal variation and formation rate. In the PM2.5 concentration range of above 250 μg/m3, PAN had the largest daily mean value of 0.64 ppbv and the fastest production rate of 0.33 ppbv/hr. From the perspective of PAN's production mechanism, the light intensity and precursors concentrations under different PM2.5 pollution levels indicated that there were sufficient light intensity and high volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx precursors concentration even under severe pollution level to generate a large amount of PAN. Moreover, the bimodal staggering phenomenon of PAN and PM2.5 provided a basis that PAN might aggravate haze through secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation.  相似文献   
3.
Atmospheric BTEX compounds(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain(NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations(25.8–236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5–1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene(1.17 ± 0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention.  相似文献   
4.
农村生活污水处理技术种类繁多,实际应用效果参差不齐,且各类技术缺乏对实际工程实施的指导。针对江苏省太湖流域农村生活污水排放特点,研究了毛细管渗滤沟处理技术、厌氧池-人工湿地组合工艺、厌氧滤池-氧化塘-生态渠技术、SBR-化学除磷和膜生物反应器等技术的工艺参数、处理效果、投资估算和操作管理要求,并对各项技术进行综合评估。针对不同的污水处理规模,总结不同地区相应的推荐处理技术。  相似文献   
5.
以太湖流域环境敏感区内某村为例,介绍了太阳能驱动的污水处理一体化设备对农村生活污水处理的应用。连续6个月的运行及监测数据表明,污水处理实际消耗电量与光伏发电量比值为54.3%,能够有效地保证污水处理所需动力。污水处理部分采用A/O-BF一体化技术,生活污水经处理以后,出水水质达到GB 18918-2002《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》中一级A标准。太阳能驱动的污水处理一体化设备运行稳定、故障率低、无需投加药剂且无运行费用,适宜在太湖流域的农村地区推广应用。  相似文献   
6.
面对日益严峻的农村环保形势,针对目前我国农村环保问题现状,从立法角度分析目前我国农村环境保护法律规定、存在问题,并提出了完善我国农村环保立法的建议。  相似文献   
7.
This paper contributes to on-going attempts at bringing together two influential ideas in water governance: Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and adaptive governance. In particular, a tension remains between the call in IWRM for the use of formal institutions, such as river basin organisations, to secure public policy integration, and the assumptions in adaptive governance in favour of informal collaboration between essentially independent policy actors. To clarify this relationship, this article draws on theoretical research on public policy integration, and uses these insights in an empirical setting to identify mechanisms that can facilitate effective policy integration for adaptive water governance. The research is based on recent attempts in Scotland to implement IWRM ideas to improve flood management. Several governance mechanisms were adopted to facilitate the integration of flood, water and rural land use policies. Six Scottish policy regimes are analysed using documentary sources and interviews. Results challenge the idea that collaboration should primarily be built on either river basin organisations or informal mechanisms. We identify a mix of informal and statutory-based mechanisms which may secure political and technocratic commitment to policy integration.  相似文献   
8.
This study identifies and assesses the perspectives of four key stakeholder groups towards solar minigrids in rural India. The stakeholders considered are policymakers, minigrid developers and operators, development organizations, and national grid representatives. Recent state and national policies in India have increased the focus on minigrids and their services. In this study, stakeholder interviews were employed to identify the attitudes towards the recent electricity policy, the underlying context for minigrid development, the role of minigrids in rural electrification, and the inclusion of minigrid systems within the larger framework of electricity sector policies by the recent government minigrid policies. Results indicate that stakeholders agree that minigrids, as a rural electricity service, are currently viable to complement the national grid due to their high reliability, performance in remote regions, and diminishing cost per unit. However, stakeholders disagree on the future outcomes, with diverging views on the priority of minigrids as an electrification tool in the face of the expanding central grid, the ideal implementation strategy for minigrids, and the potential for grid‐minigrid interaction. Based on stakeholder feedback, the growth of minigrids in India is likely to be constrained by the confidence in recent policies, necessitating more frequent dialogue among decision makers and a solidified relationship to the national electricity grid.  相似文献   
9.
This study examines whether investment in climate change mitigation contributes to poverty alleviation. We investigate the impacts of the renewable energy-based clean development mechanism (RE-CDM) projects on rural communities in China. The impacts of RE-CDM projects are estimated by combining propensity score matching with the difference-in-differences approach. We found that the biomass-based CDM projects significantly contribute to income improvement and employment generation in rural communities in China. Our estimation results also reveal that wind energy-based CDM projects have the potential to increase income and the share of labor force in the primary industry in rural areas. These results suggest different channels through which renewable energy sources affect income.  相似文献   
10.
The success or failure of rural water services in the developing world is a result of numerous factors that interact in a complex set of connections that are difficult to separate and identify. This research effort presented a novel means to empirically reveal the systemic interactions of factors that influence rural water service sustainability in the municipalities of Darío and Terrabona, Nicaragua. To accomplish this, the study employed graphical modeling to build and analyze factor networks. Influential factors were first identified by qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing transcribed interviews from community water committee members. Factor influences were then inferred by graphical modeling to create factor network diagrams that revealed the direct and indirect interaction of factors. Finally, network analysis measures were used to identify “impact factors” based on their relative influence within each factor network. Findings from this study elucidated the systematic nature of such factor interactions in both Darío and Terrabona, and highlighted key areas for programmatic impact on water service sustainability for both municipalities. Specifically, in Darío, the impact areas related to the current importance of water service management by community water committees, while in Terrabona, the impact areas related to the current importance of finances, viable water sources, and community capacity building by external support. Overall, this study presents a rigorous and useful means to identify impact factors as a way to facilitate the thoughtful planning and evaluation of sustainable rural water services in Nicaragua and beyond.  相似文献   
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