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1.
东北地区大气BTEX的时空分布特征   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
在东北地区7个典型城市中25个监测点进行了观测,时间分别为2008年4月、7月、10月和2009年1月,使用吸附剂采样管采集并通过热脱附-气相色谱-质谱联用技术分析了苯系物样品,系统研究了东北地区大气苯系物的时空分布特征.研究结果表明,苯和甲苯年均浓度值最高,分别为(4.19±2.31) μg/m3和(3.22±1.14) μg/m3,共占苯系物浓度近70%;各功能区按苯系物浓度大小顺序排列为混合区>工业区>交通区>居民区>文教区>对照区;受排放源和气象条件的影响,采暖期苯系物浓度高于非采暖期苯系物浓度;风向频率影响苯系物浓度分布,沿下风向浓度逐渐降低;苯/甲苯比值分析表明,东北地区苯系物的主要来源是煤燃烧.  相似文献
2.
Quantification of the forest water flux provides valuable information for the understanding of forest ecosystem functioning. As such, throughfall (and stemflow to a lesser extent) has been frequently measured. Although throughfall collection may seem relatively simple, the requirements to obtain reliable estimates are often underestimated. This review addresses the criteria to take into account when working out the sampling procedure, from the selection of equipment to implementation in the field. Sound sampling of the forest water flux is difficult due to its high spatial and temporal variation. The high costs entailed by the ideal sampling design often prohibit its implementation. Different procedures are available, some of which are compromises between the aim of the study (monitoring or experimental study, short or long term objectives, absolute or relative estimates, quality of the assessment to be achieved) and the available means.  相似文献
3.
The article describes the use of Scots pine bark to identifynitrogen sources in eastern Germany, as well as background areas in Russia and Bulgaria, by using natural isotope ratios of total nitrogen (Nt) and individual N compoundssuch as ammonium (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -)and amid nitrogen (amide-N). The samples collected were analysed using an elemental analyser in connection with a gas isotope mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). Natural 15N abundances in pine bark from impact areas suggest that the ammonium accumulated on the surface of the bark is releasedfrom livestock management. Bark of Scots pines growing near agricultural land had highly depleted 15Nt values (between –8 and –12), while bark from background areas (unpolluted areas) displayed slightly negative 15Nt values (mean 15Nt = –3.8). It is assumed that part of the N adsorbed on the bark surface is mainly derived from ammonia(mean 15Nt = –40.3) escaping from livestock housing and during the application of manure. This assumption is confirmed by experiments under controlled conditions in which manure samples were spread on soil. In addition, temporal and spatial variations of 15Nt abundances in pine bark from various locations in eastern Germany as wellas pine stands in Nature Park Dübener Heath are discussed.  相似文献
4.
In 1996 and 1997, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples taken from 24 sites in the vicinity of an old municipal solid waste incinerator (Montcada, Barcelona, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, recently 24 soiland 24 herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for PCDD/F levels. In the currentsurvey, PCDD/F concentrations in soils ranged between 0.06 and127 ng I-TEQ kg-1 (dry matter), with median and mean values of 4.80 and 9.95 ng I-TEQ kg-1 (dry matter), respectively. In turn, the levels of PCDD/Fs in herbage samples ranged from 0.40 to 1.94 ng I-TEQ kg-1 (dry matter), with median and mean values of 0.86 and 0.95 ng I-TEQ kg-1 (dry matter), respectively. The comparison with the data obtained in 1996 and 1997 show that while PCDD/F concentrations in herbage samples decreased substantially during the last two years, no significant differences in the levels of PCDD/Fs in soils were noted. On the other hand, the potential intake of polluted soils from the vicinity of the plant would not imply any significant health risk for the general population living in the area under influence of the facility.  相似文献
5.
Bulk precipitation samples at Mumbai (India) were collectedduring the monsoon seasons of 1991 to 1996 and analysed forionic concentrations using an Ion Chromatograph DIONEX model100. The variability of sulphate to nitrate ratio in rainwaterfluctuates in a wide range from 1.5 to 20 and governed by thesulphate concentrations in the sample. The regression analysisof the data reveals that in the bulk precipitation at Mumbai, SO4 2- is becoming increasingly important relative toNO3 -. The role of meteorological influences onscavenging of air pollutants by rain water has been tried toexplain the phenomena. The computed wet deposition rates for Sand N during 1991–1996 show that the S deposition is higherthan N in all the years. There is a wide fluctuation indeposition rates of S ranging from 2 to 55 kg km2 per annum.  相似文献
6.
Long-term monitoring of forest soils as part of a pan-European network to detect environmental change depends on an accurate determination of the mean of the soil properties at each monitoring event. Forest soil is known to be very variable spatially, however. A study was undertaken to explore and quantify this variability at three forest monitoring plots in Britain. Detailed soil sampling was carried out, and the data from the chemical analyses were analysed by classical statistics and geostatistics. An analysis of variance showed that there were no consistent effects from the sample sites in relation to the position of the trees. The variogram analysis showed that there was spatial dependence at each site for several variables and some varied in an apparently periodic way. An optimal sampling analysis based on the multivariate variogram for each site suggested that a bulked sample from 36 cores would reduce error to an acceptable level. Future sampling should be designed so that it neither targets nor avoids trees and disturbed ground. This can be achieved best by using a stratified random sampling design.  相似文献
7.
利用2014年广东南岭背景站、天湖郊区站、磨碟沙城区站和受体区域桃源站SO2、NO2、PM10、O3、PM2.5与CO自动监测数据,分析不同环境大气污染特性。结果表明,4个站点的SO2、NO2、PM10与CO整体平均年均值较低,分别为14,28,59 μg/m3和0.7 mg/m3;PM2.5整体平均值为36 μg/m3,O3日最大8 h第90百分位数平均值为172 μg/m3,二者高于国家二级标准限值。磨碟沙城区站和桃源站的污染物日变化规律较为明显,NO2、PM10和PM2.5在早晚交通高峰或紧接其后的时段出现峰值区。南岭背景站PM2.5质量浓度日间略高于夜间;O3未呈典型单峰分布,而是维持在较平稳、较高浓度水平。周末与工作日O3平均值的相对高低多与NO2、PM10和PM2.5的情况相反。4个站点O3日最大8 h值第90百分位数均未达标;南岭背景站和天湖郊区站O3值尤高,除10月外,在1月或6月也易出现O3高值。区域性的O3污染控制亟须深化开展。  相似文献
8.
运用综合污染指数法探讨滹沱河忻州段水质时空变化规律及关键影响因子。结果表明:在时间序列上,劣Ⅴ类河长比例总体呈先波动(1993—2003年),再波动上升(2004—2008年),最后快速下降趋势(2009—2011年);综合污染指数从高到低依次为丰水期2.15、平水期1.75、枯水期1.28,4项水质指标综合污染指数从高到低依次为DO、CODMn、挥发酚、氨氮。空间上,界河铺-济胜桥段指数最高,水质最差,出境段面南庄水质最好,下茹越、西留属、崞阳桥断面介于上述两者之间。为此,将滹沱河分为污染控制区、综合改善区与生态恢复区进行分段管理。工业废水排放量、污水处理能力、GDP、人口数量是水质的主要影响因子,相关系数分别为0.882、0.905、0.919和0.809。  相似文献
9.
为了全面分析室内氡的时空分布特征、来源和影响因素,选择了贵阳市不同地理位置的居民住宅、办公场所和公共场所,进行了为期一年的室内氡监测。贵阳市室内氡的平均浓度为(72.7±1.6)Bq/m3,低于室内空气污染国家标准,达标率98.5%。其中居民住宅、办公场所和公共场所的室内氡浓度分别为(93.46±86.93)、(74.68±40.74)、(61±26.93)Bq/m3。研究表明,室内涂料、装修程度和通风效果、小区环境等对室内氡浓度高低有显著影响,室内氡也随季节变化而发生波动。对于居民住宅和公共场所氡的室内外来源相对重要性不同。居民住宅内新楼和旧楼不同楼层室内氡的来源、影响因素和分布特征有显著差异。  相似文献
10.
利用2012年1月至2016年2月广州市环境空气自动监测数据和气象观测数据,对广州市近地面臭氧的时空分布特征及其与气象因子的关系进行分析。结果表明:2012-2015年广州市臭氧日最大8 h滑动平均值的第90百分位数波动变化,年变化率依次为-14.3%、5.8%、-12.1%;广州市臭氧浓度呈现夏、秋季高,春、冬季低的显著季节变化特征;臭氧日最大8 h平均值的月均值和第90百分位数最高的月份一般分别出现在10月和7-8月;臭氧浓度的日变化曲线为单峰型,最大值一般出现在14:00或15:00;臭氧浓度随垂直高度的升高而增大,从低层(6 m点位或地面站)到中层(118 m和168 m点位)、中层到高层(488 m点位)臭氧日最大8 h滑动平均值的增长率分别为18.3%和39.1%;广州市中心城区臭氧浓度低于南北部城郊,夏、秋季高值区与夏、秋季主导风向相对应;臭氧浓度受降水、气温、相对湿度和风速等气象因子影响,臭氧浓度的超标是多种因素综合作用的结果。  相似文献
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