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1.
The global plastics production has increased annually and a substantial part is used for packaging (in Europe 39%). Most plastic packages are discarded after a relatively short service life and the resulting plastic packaging waste is subsequently landfilled, incinerated or recycled. Laws of several European and Asian countries require that plastic packaging waste collected from households has to be sorted, reprocessed, compounded and reused. These recycling schemes typically produce milled goods of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene) (PE), isotactic poly(propylene) (PP), mixed plastics, and agglomerates from film material. The present study documents the composition and properties of post-consumer polyolefin recyclates originating from both source separation and mechanical recovery from municipal solid refuse waste (MSRW). The overall composition by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were determined and compared with the sorting results of the sorted fractions prior to the reprocessing into milled goods. This study shows that the collection method for the plastic packaging waste has hardly any influence on the final quality of the recyclate; however, the sorting and reprocessing steps influence the final quality of the recyclate. Although the mechanical properties of recyclate are clearly different than those of virgin polymers, changes to the sorting and reprocessing steps can improve the quality.  相似文献   
2.
Water is a natural resource key to human and environmental health. China has suffered serious contamination of its water sources in the past decade, which has had severe consequences on the water supplies of millions of residents. Frequent polluting accidents and the amount of wastewater discharged have caused concern for the safety of drinking water. Fortunately, those at various levels of government have realized the importance of protecting the sources of drinking water and confirmed a list of 175 nationally important sources. Measures have also been adopted to control water pollution, including infrastructural, physical, chemical, ecological, administrative, and legal measures. While helpful, some areas in need of more attention are rural water, groundwater, agricultural pollution, and domestic sewage. Based on the lessons learned from experiences in developed countries, we offer some suggestions for improving, inter alia, funding, legal construction, management, and awareness‐raising, as well as present proposals for the future protection of our sources of drinking water. Future work should focus on water quality standards, quantitative research, high technology and legislation.  相似文献   
3.
在内蒙古贝加尔针茅草原,分别设对照(N0)、1.5 g·m^-2(N15)、3.0 g·m^-2(N30)、5.0 g·m^-2(N50)、10.0 g·m^-2(N100)、15.0 g·m^-2(N150)、20.0 g·m^-2(N200)和30 g·m^-2(N300)(不包括大气沉降的氮量)8个氮素(NH4NO3)梯度和模拟夏季增加降水100 mm的水分添加交互试验,研究氮素和水分添加对草原土壤养分、酶活性及微生物量碳氮的影响。结果表明:氮素和水分添加对草原土壤理化性质和生物学特性有显著影响。随施氮量的增加土壤总有机碳、全氮、硝态氮、铵态氮含量呈增加的趋势,相反,土壤pH值呈降低的趋势。土壤脲酶和过氧化氢酶的活性随施氮量的增加而升高,多酚氧化酶则随施氮量的增加呈下降的趋势。氮素和水分添加对草原土壤微生物量碳氮含量有显著影响,高氮处理(N150、N200和N300)显著降低了微生物碳含量,微生物氮含量随施氮量的增加呈上升趋势。水分添加能够减缓氮素添加对微生物的抑制作用,提高微生物量碳、微生物量氮含量。草原土壤养分、土壤酶活性及土壤微生物量碳氮含量间关系密切,过氧化氢酶与全氮、总有机碳、硝态氮呈显著正相关,多酚氧化酶与铵态氮、硝态氮、全氮呈显著负相关。微生物量氮含量与土壤全氮、铵态氮、硝态氮含量以及过氧化氢酶和磷酸酶活性呈显著正相关,与多酚氧化酶呈负相关;微生物量碳与过氧化氢酶呈负相关,与多酚氧化酶活性呈正相关。  相似文献   
4.
This study proposes an improved integrated water resource management (IWRM), in which water conservation was analyzed for the entire water use process. A multi-objective optimization method was applied to optimize the IWRM, which investigated the reduction of freshwater consumption and the total water supply cost. Customer's preference for saving water and an end use analysis (EUA) was applied in the water conservation analysis. Taking Tianjin as the study area, a reduction in customer's economic pressure (EP) was utilized to evaluate the degree of the customer's preference for saving water. The results revealed that agriculture had a greater preference for saving water than other sectors, where as the public had the weakest motivation for saving water. Improving the transportation method could contribute 62.1% of the total water savings in the agriculture sector. The optimization of the IWRM demonstrated that the local freshwater savings would be 21.5%, and the total cost for water supplies would decrease by 13%. However, a government subsidy of 87.5 million Yuan would be needed. Additionally, by analyzing the change in the amount of water savings affected by water price, the appropriate water price increase range was suggested to be 1.5–1.7 times the original price.  相似文献   
5.
Municipal solid waste landfills pose a threat on environment and human health, especially old landfills which lack facilities for collection and treatment of landfill gas and leachate. Consequently, missing information about emission flows prevent site-specific environmental risk assessments. To overcome this gap, the combination of waste sampling and analysis with statistical modeling is one option for estimating present and future emission potentials. Optimizing the tradeoff between investigation costs and reliable results requires knowledge about both: the number of samples to be taken and variables to be analyzed.This article aims to identify the optimized number of waste samples and variables in order to predict a larger set of variables. Therefore, we introduce a multivariate linear regression model and tested the applicability by usage of two case studies. Landfill A was used to set up and calibrate the model based on 50 waste samples and twelve variables. The calibrated model was applied to Landfill B including 36 waste samples and twelve variables with four predictor variables.The case study results are twofold: first, the reliable and accurate prediction of the twelve variables can be achieved with the knowledge of four predictor variables (Loi, EC, pH and Cl). For the second Landfill B, only ten full measurements would be needed for a reliable prediction of most response variables. The four predictor variables would exhibit comparably low analytical costs in comparison to the full set of measurements. This cost reduction could be used to increase the number of samples yielding an improved understanding of the spatial waste heterogeneity in landfills.Concluding, the future application of the developed model potentially improves the reliability of predicted emission potentials. The model could become a standard screening tool for old landfills if its applicability and reliability would be tested in additional case studies.  相似文献   
6.
Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear pattern of deviations from target conditions when observing fish habitat requirements strongly suggests that physical habitat change should be a priority for river enhancement in the Charles River. Comparison of our target and existing fish communities to those from a comprehensive study of Northeastern fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients revealed very similar results. Likewise, comparison of our TFC community and affinity scores to those of other TFCs from similar regions also yielded similar results and encouraging findings. Based on the positive results of these comparisons, the utility of the findings from the inference approach, and the widespread adoption of the TFC in the Northeast US, it appears that the TFC approach can be used effectively to identify the composition of a healthy fish community and guide river enhancements in both highly urbanized and non-urbanized streams and rivers in the Northeast US.  相似文献   
7.
若尔盖水源涵养重要生态服务功能区是全国50个重要生态服务功能区域之一,具有极重要的水源涵养生态服务功能。该区涵盖四川省境内的黄河流域区,面积约1.6×104km2,区内分布有涵水能力极强的沼泽土和泥炭土,对调节黄河径流时空分布具有非常重要的作用。本文利用地理信息系统技术,用土壤饱和蓄水量指标评价了本区的水源涵养生态服务...  相似文献   
8.
电絮凝技术在水处理中的研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
何夏清 《四川环境》2011,30(3):94-98
简要介绍了电絮凝技术的基本原理,综述了电絮凝技术在废水治理和给水净化方面的研究进展,并对其影响因素的研究现状进行了综述.最后指出了该项技术的发展方向.  相似文献   
9.
分析了钻井作业对地下水污染的特点、污染途径,针对性地提出了钻井作业对地下水污染的预防措施,以及污染物处理技术,其中氧化还原技术、气体抽取技术、环境生物技术主要用于有机物污染治理,SRB技术、废弃钻井液固化技术、钻井液转换为水泥浆(MTC)的固井技术可用于处理废弃钻井液。钻井引起的污染治理应以"预防为主,防治结合",切实推行清洁生产和HSE管理。  相似文献   
10.
水力条件对复合人工湿地处理城市受污染河水效果的影响   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
通过对水力负荷、水力停留时间等水力条件的控制,观察其对复合垂直上行流人工湿地处理城市受污染河水效果的影响.一年多来的运行结果表明:水力条件对复合垂直上行流人工湿地去除其他污染物的影响显著,但对总氮去除的影响不大.水力停留时间的延长可提高总磷、氨氮、COD的去除效果;随着水力负荷的增加,总磷、氨氮、COD去除率都有所增加...  相似文献   
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