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1.
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management - Effective municipal solid waste collection and disposal system is not possible without reliable solid waste generation and classification data...  相似文献   
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Environmental Science and Pollution Research - Phosphorus is an essential macro-mineral nutrient for poultry, needed for the body growth, development of bones, genomic function, good...  相似文献   
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Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies constitute an essential step in the risk analysis of any chemical process industry and involve systematic identification of every conceivable abnormal process deviation, its causes and abnormal consequences. These authors have recently proposed optHAZOP as an alternative procedure for conducting HAZOP studies in a shorter span of time than taken by conventional HAZOP procedure, with greater accuracy and effectiveness [Khan, F. I. and Abassi, S. A., optHAZOP. An effective and efficient technique for hazard identification and assessment Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 1997, 10, 191–204]. optHAZOP consists of several steps, the most crucial one requires use of a knowledge-based software tool which would significantly reduce the requirement of expert man-hours and speed up the work of the study team. TOPHAZOP (Tool for OPTmizing HAZOP) has been developed to fulfil this need.

The TOPHAZOP knowledge-base consists of two main branches: process-specific and general. The TOPHAZOP framework allows these two branches to interact during the analysis to address the process-specific aspects of HAZOP analysis while maintaining the generality of the system. The system is open-ended and modular in structure to make easy implementation and/or expansion of knowledge. The important features of TOPHAZOP and its performance on an industrial case study are described.  相似文献   

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research - This study aimed to determine the effect of land-use changes on the non-carcinogenic health risk of nitrate ion exposure of underground drinking water...  相似文献   
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Water quality indice are necessary for resolving lengthy, multi-parameter, water analysis reports into single digit scores. This, in turn, is essential for comparing the water quality of different sources and in monitoring the changes in the water quality of a given source as a function of time and other influencing factors.In this paper we present the computer-automated tool QUALIDEX (water QUALIty inDEX), which has been developed by us to generate and operate water quality indice. Several popular indice – such as the Oregon Water Quality Index developed in the 1970s by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and later updated in 1995, the Aquatic Toxicity Index developed by Wepener and coworkers for protection of aquatic life at the Olifants river, Kruger National Park, South Africa, the water quality index developed by Dinius in 1987, the Overall Index of Pollution (of surface waters) developed at the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), and the water quality index of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) – have also been added to QUALIDEX in modular form. There is also a New water quality index sub-module which enables the user to generate his or her own index and compare its performance with these well-known indice. The package is also capable of analyzing the variations in the water quality of different sites at different times. The software has been coded in Visual C++ and has been integrated with MS Access database.  相似文献   
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Natural aggregates (NA) are crushed and processed in crushing plants after the extraction stage in quarries. In the present study, the aggregates are divided into three scenarios, depending on the production methods. The first scenario considers the production of NA, the second scenario deals with the production of recycled aggregates (RA) with respect to construction and demolition waste, and the third scenario, which is a hybrid scenario, handles the combination of NA and RA by assuming a 50% mixing percentage. In this research, we assess the environmental impacts on the production of aggregates via each scenario, using life cycle assessment; in addition, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are considered as the environmental variables. We conclude that Iran’s current policy with an annual energy consumption of 1.48 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) can have a footprint of 2.88 million tons of CO2 eq emissions per year (the first scenario). Achieving 30 and 36% reduction in annual energy consumption and CO2 emissions, respectively, by the third scenario compared to the first scenario indicates the destructive effect of the first scenario from the environmental outlook.  相似文献   
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In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha?1, and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.  相似文献   
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Chains of accidents (the domino effect) have been occurring with ever increasing frequency in chemical process industries. This is reflected in several accidents ‘J Loss Prevent Process Ind 12 (1999a) 361’; the world's worst industrial accident of the 1990s — the Vishakhpatnam disaster — also involved the domino effect ‘J Loss Prevent Process Ind 12 (1999a) 361; and Process Safety Prog 18 (1999b) 135’. Such chains of accidents have a greater propensity to cause damage than stand-alone accidents ‘Process Safety Prog 17(2) (1998a) 107; and J Loss Prevent Process Ind 12 (1999a) 361’.In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the domino effect and its damage potential, use of deterministic models in conjunction with probabilistic analysis is required. Recently we have proposed a systematic methodology called ‘domino effect analysis’ (DEA). A computer-automated tool, DOMIFFECT, has also been developed by us based on DEA ‘Process Safety Prog 17(2) (1998a) 107; Environment Model Software 13 (1998b) 163; and Risk assessment in chemical process industries: advanced techniques. Discovery Publishing House (1998c)’.This paper illustrates the application of DEA and DOMIFFECT to an industrial complex comprising 16 different industries. Out of 12 credible accident scenarios envisaged in three different industries — namely Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), UB Petrochemicals (UBP) and Indian Organic Chemicals Limited (IOCL), eight scenarios are likely to cause the domino effect. A further detailed analysis reveals that accidents in the storage of liquified petroleum gas and propylene and in the reflux drum units of MRL may cause domino effects. Similarly, propylene storage of UBP and monoethylene glycol storage of IOCL are also likely to cause domino effects. The impact of various chains of accidents has been forecast which reveals that in several cases the accidents may be catastrophic, harming the entire industrial complex of 16 industries. The study leads to the identification of ‘hot spots’ — units that pose the greatest risk — in turn forewarning the industries concerned and enabling them to prioritize and augment accident-prevention steps.  相似文献   
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