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1.
典型地区农用地污染调查及风险管控标准探讨   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
针对《土壤污染风险管控标准——农用地土壤污染风险管控标准》(GB 15618—2018),提出以土壤中全量浓度筛选值和管控值作为衡量农用地土壤污染风险管控的标准,对湖南省部分稻田农用地土壤及点对点稻米样品中镉、铅、砷、汞的总量和有效态浓度及稻米中含量进行监测,根据重金属总量浓度分为低风险、中风险、高风险3组。结果显示:(1)土壤及稻米中镉含量基本为随着风险级别的升高而增加,铅、砷在土壤和稻米中含量无规律性结果,汞监测结果均为未检出。(2)低风险组稻米镉超标率为12. 0%,高风险组稻米镉达标率为33. 3%,表明利用总量浓度对农用地土壤潜在风险进行分组存在一定的局限性。(3)依据4种重金属在土壤中总量及稻米(早稻)中含量情况,对风险级别进行调整并综合判断:有58个样品为低风险组,占样品总数的68. 2%,超标率为零;有15个样品为中风险组,占样品总数的17. 7%,超标率为80. 0%;有12个样品为高风险组,占样品总数的14. 1%,超标率为100. 0%。调整后评价结果与上述标准的划分目标更接近,能够提高上述标准的准确性和实用性。  相似文献   
2.
阐述了水生态健康的内涵与意义,从江苏省率先在太湖流域开展水生态环境功能分区管理的顶层设计,构建以水生态健康指标为核心的水生态健康评估技术体系,地方对照水生态环境功能区划的水生态分级管控目标开展的应用与实践结果等3个方面,回顾了江苏省太湖流域水生态健康评估工作的主要进展,提出了完善水生态健康评估技术体系和推进流域水生态健康评估工作的建议。  相似文献   
3.
RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research-based studies combined with expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consists of dichotomous assessment items grouped into seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of the assessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1?h of training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I being usable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, being usable as a decision base, having clear results and that the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a usable tool for practitioners.  相似文献   
4.
A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed for the determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in citrus (including the whole citrus, peel and pulp) and soil samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and purified with octadecylsilane. The detection limits of both compounds were 0.0001–0.0002?mg kg–1, while the limit of quantification of thiamethoxam was 0.002?mg kg–1 and the limit of quantitation of metabolites was 0.001?mg kg–1. The recovery was 70.37%–109.76%, with inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) (n?=?15) values ≤9.46% for the two compounds in the four matrices. The degradation curve of thiamethoxam in whole citrus and soil was plotted using the first-order kinetic model. The half-life of the whole citrus was 1.9–6.2?days, and the half-life of the soil was 3.9–4.2?days. The terminal residue of thiamethoxam (the sum of thiamethoxam and clothianidin, expressed as thiamethoxam) was found to be concentrated on the peel. The final residual amount of thiamethoxam in the edible portion (pulp) was less than 0.061?mg kg–1. The risk quotient values were all below 1, indicating that thiamethoxam as a citrus insecticide does not pose a health risk to humans at the recommended dosage.  相似文献   
5.
珠江口表层水中多环芳烃的分布特征及健康风险评估   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
分别于2015年2、5、8、11月在珠江八大入海口采集表层水体样品,应用固相萃取富集法对该区域表层水体中16种USEPA优控多环芳烃(PAHs)的时空分布特征进行分析,并利用终生致癌风险增量模型(ILCR)对该区域的饮水健康风险进行评价。结果表明:珠江口4个季度所采集的水样中,∑15PAHs的浓度范围为18.0~50.3 ng/L,含量处于中等水平。其中7种强致癌性∑7PAHs的浓度范围为1.53~3.73 ng/L,占∑15PAHs的5.89%~11.1%,∑15PAHs和∑7PAHs在枯水期(2、11月)样品中明显高于丰水期(5、8月)。就组成特征而言,各采样点PAHs以3、4环为主。珠江口表层水中非致癌类PAHs的危害商数值为0.99×10~(-5)~2.73×10~(-5),远低于USEPA规定的阈值(1);致癌类PAHs产生的健康风险为6.50×10~(-8)~2.37×10~(-7),其中Ba P导致的饮水途径健康风险最高,所有点位致癌类PAHs的健康风险均低于USEPA推荐的对致癌物质最大可接受风险水平(10~(-6)),表明珠江口表层水中PAHs尚不具备严重的致癌风险,但是仍然存在潜在的健康风险,需要重点控制和管理。  相似文献   
6.
Complex systems often experience a long period of incubation before accidents occur. Therefore, a proactive risk assessment is essential for process safety. The conventional job hazard analysis (JHA) method has been an effective tool to conduct a process risk assessment in the high-risk industrial field. However, the conventional JHA is inadequate for the proactive risk assessment since it is usually conducted during and before one specific operation process. Operations such as startup and maintenance are performed repeatedly on the lifecycle of a plant. Therefore, the risk reduction measures for the industrial process should include not only preventive actions obtained from the conventional JHA but also recovery ones. Resilience engineering (RE) has proven to be helpful for the recovery analysis of a complex system. The objective of this paper is to propose a proactive and comprehensive process risk assessment approach based on JHA and RE. The mechanism of applying RE to address operation process risk is illustrated. The integrated approach can provide guidelines to establish proactive risk reduction measures as well as maintain a low-risk level. Finally, a gas transmission startup process risk assessment case is presented to demonstrate its applicability.  相似文献   
7.
Abstract:  We examined factors that may independently or synergistically contribute to amphibian population declines. We used epidemiologic case–control methodology to sample and analyze a large database developed and maintained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department that describes historical and currently known ranid frog localities in Arizona, U.S.A. Sites with historical documentation of target ranid species ( n = 324) were evaluated to identify locations where frogs had disappeared during the study period (case sites) and locations where frog populations persisted (control sites). Between 1986 and 2003, 117 (36%) of the 324 sites became case sites, of which 105 were used in the analyses. An equal number of control sites were sampled to control for the effects of time. Risk factors, or predictor variables, were defined from environmental data summarized during site surveys and geographic information system data layers. We evaluated risk factors with univariate and multifactorial logistic-regression analyses to derive odds ratios (OR). Odds for local population disappearance were significantly related to 4 factors in the multifactorial model. Disappearance of frog populations increased with increasing elevation (OR = 2.7 for every 500 m, p < 0.01). Sites where disappearances occurred were 4.3 times more likely to have other nearby sites that also experienced disappearances (OR = 4.3, p < 0.01), whereas the odds of disappearance were 6.7 times less (OR = 0.15, p < 0.01) when there was a source population nearby. Sites with disappearances were 2.6 times more likely to have introduced crayfish than were control sites (OR = 2.6, p = 0.04). The identification of factors associated with frog disappearances increases understanding of declines occurring in natural populations and aids in conservation efforts to reestablish and protect native ranids by identifying and prioritizing implicated threats.  相似文献   
8.
In the high technology industry, small and medium sized technology enterprises (SMSTEs) play a pivotal role in advancing the whole industry. To achieve sustainable development, they need to extend their scope of business activities beyond a national view and exploit international market actively to meet international competitions that increase quickly in the form of allocating resources within the scope of the world. However, the SMSTEs are also facing risks associated with themselves during the process of exploiting international market owing to their own restrictions, so what they should do is to consider risk evaluations in exploiting the international market.  相似文献   
9.
企业开展HSE危害识别及风险评估的现状与对策   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
结合本单位建立与实施HSE管理体系实际,分析了企业开展危害识别与风险评估中常见的问题,提出了解决问题的初步方法。  相似文献   
10.
This study uses knowledge discovery concepts to analyze large amounts of data step by step for the purpose of assisting in the formulation of environmental policy. We performed data cleansing and extracting from existing nation-wide databases, and used regression and classification techniques to analyze the data. The current water hardness in Kaohsiung, Taiwan contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but exacerbates the development of renal stones (RS). However, to focus on water hardness alone to control RS would not be cost effective at all, because the existing database parameters do not adequately allow for a clear understanding of RS. Analysis of huge amounts of data can most often turn up the most reliable and convincing results and the use of existing databases can be cost-effective.  相似文献   
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