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1.
In the high technology industry, small and medium sized technology enterprises (SMSTEs) play a pivotal role in advancing the whole industry. To achieve sustainable development, they need to extend their scope of business activities beyond a national view and exploit international market actively to meet international competitions that increase quickly in the form of allocating resources within the scope of the world. However, the SMSTEs are also facing risks associated with themselves during the process of exploiting international market owing to their own restrictions, so what they should do is to consider risk evaluations in exploiting the international market.  相似文献   
2.
生态足迹影响因子的定量分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
人口的膨胀和人类工业化进程的加剧,使得人类向自然界获取越来越多的资源,同时向环境源源不断的输入废弃物,已经严重超过了自然生态系统的供给能力和环境容量,生态环境日益恶化,水土流失、草场退化、植被消亡、生物多样性锐减、全球变暖等情况已经严重到难以遏制的地步,危及到人类自身的生存。在和平与发展成为世界两大主题的今天,人们越来越关注可持续发展的问题。在现有资料的基础上,利用主成分分析方法,定量地讨论了中国各省(区市)1999年生态足迹大小与其影响因子间的关系。结果表明,生态足迹的大小是各省(区市)的大中型企业个数、全社会固定生产投资等众多因子共同作用的结果,其中总人口和GDP是生态足迹大小的主要影响因子,其因子载荷量分别达到了0.940和0.913。值得一提的是非农业人口与生态足迹的相关系数超过了农业人口,这说明由于消费模式和生活水平等的差异,非农业人口对生态足迹的影响大于农业人口对生态足迹的影响。在此基础上建立了生态足迹影响因子的多元线性回归模型,以期为生态足迹在进行区域可持续发展评价的方法上提供新的思路。  相似文献   
3.
Granular acid-activated neutralized red mud (AaN-RM) has been successfully prepared with good chemical stability and physical strength. However, its potential for industrial application remains unknown. Therefore, the performance of granular AaN-RM for phosphate recovery in a fixed-bed column was investigated. The results demonstrated that the phosphate adsorption performance of granular AaN-RM in a fixed-bed column was affected by various operational parameters, such as the bed depth, flow rate, initial solution pH and initial phosphate concentration. With the optimal empty-bed contact time (EBCT) of 24.27 min, the number of processed bed volumes and the phosphate adsorption capacity reached 496.95 and 84.80 mg/g, respectively. Then, the saturated fixed-bed column could be effectively regenerated with a 0.5 mol/L HCl solution. The desorption efficiency remained as high as 83.45% with a low weight loss of 3.57% in the fifth regeneration cycle. In addition, breakthrough curve modelling showed that a 5-9-1 feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) could be effectively applied for the optimization of the fixed-bed adsorption system; the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) evaluated on the validation-testing data were 0.9987 and 0.0183, respectively. Therefore, granular AaN-RM fixed-bed adsorption exhibits promising potential for phosphate removal and recovery from polluted water.  相似文献   
4.
Silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) have been widely used in many fields,which raised concerns about potential threats to biological sewage treatment systems.In this study,the phosphorus removal performance,enzymatic activity and microbial population dynamics in constructed wetlands(CWs) were evaluated under a long-term exposure to Ag NPs(0,50,and 200 μg/L) for 450 days.Results have shown that Ag NPs inhibited the phosphorus removal efficiency in a short-term exposure,whereas caused no obviously negative effects from a long-term perspective.Moreover,in the coexisting CW system of Ag NPs and phosphorus,competition exhibited in the initial exposure phase,however,cooperation between them was observed in later phase.Enzymatic activity of acid-phosphatase at the moderate temperature(10–20°C) was visibly higher than that at the high temperature(20–30℃) and CWs with Ag NPs addition had no appreciable differences compared with the control.High-throughput sequencing results indicated that the microbial richness,diversity and composition of CWs were distinctly affected with the extension of exposure time at different Ag NPs levels.However,the phosphorus removal performance of CWs did not decline with the decrease of polyphosphate accumulating organisms(PAOs),which also confirmed that adsorption precipitation was the main way of phosphorus removal in CWs.The study suggested that Ag NPs and phosphorus could be removed synergistically in the coexistence system.This work has some reference for evaluating the influences of Ag NPs on the phosphorus removal and the interrelation between them in CWs.  相似文献   
5.
To clarify the effect of coking dust, sintering dust and fly ash on the activity of activated carbon for various industrial flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, the coupling mechanism of the mixed activated carbon and dust was investigated to provide theoretical reference for the stable operation. The results show that coking dust had 34% desulfurization efficiency and 10% denitrification efficiency; correspondingly, sintering dust and fly ash had no obvious desulfurization and denitrification activities. For the mixture of activated carbon and dust, the coking dust reduced the desulfurization and denitrification efficiencies by blocking the pores of activated carbon, and its inhibiting effect on activated carbon was larger than its own desulfurization and denitrification activity. The sintering dust also reduced the desulfurization efficiency on the activated carbon while enhancing the denitrification efficiency. Fly ash blocked the pores of activated carbon and reduced its reaction activity. The reaction activity of coking dust mainly came from the surface functional groups, similar to that of activated carbon. The reaction activity of sintering dust mainly came from the oxidative property of Fe2O3, which oxidized NO to NO2 and promoted the fast selectively catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to form N2. Sintering dust was activated by the joint action of activated carbon, and both had a coupling function. Sintering dust enhanced the adsorption and oxidation of NO, and activated carbon further promoted the reduction of NOx by NH3; thus, the denitrification efficiency increased by 5%-7% on the activated carbon.  相似文献   
6.
Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds(VOCs). However,little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4–5 hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10 days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol(SOA) production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China.  相似文献   
7.
为了实现建筑行业的可持续发展,设计并实现绿色环保节能建筑,将节能环保理念渗透在建筑设计的每个细节中。分析融入节能环保理念的建筑设计过程,对其中的架构环保节能设计、节能环保材料的选用以及节能环保技术发展进行研究,并重点分析了资源可持续利用、太阳能利用以及电气节能技术在绿色环保节能建筑设计中的应用过程。通过绿色建筑节能环保总设计,绿色节能环保建筑构造的优化设计以及绿色建筑的暖通空调设计,实现绿色环保节能建筑的高质量设计。  相似文献   
8.
分析了毛细饱水带的水动力学特性,指出在地下水污染研究中,污染物在毛细饱和水带和潜水怪具有相同的水平运动规律,并以实例分析说明该带对污染物运移的重要性。建议在研究和一非饱和条件地下水及污染物运动问题时把毛细饱水带与潜水含水层统一为饱马毛细饱水带顶面作为饱水面。  相似文献   
9.
Nitrate and other solutes resulting from field-weathering of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) percolate into underlying soils and may migrate to groundwater. A field trial was conducted to investigate the potential influences of SMS weathering on groundwater quality. Spent mushroom substrate was deposited at 90 and 150 cm pile depths over a Typic Hapludult and weathered for 2 years. Eight casing wells were installed around the SMS piles to monitor the quality changes of groundwater with a high seasonal water table of 760 cm below the surface. Although leachate solutes had moved more than 200 cm deep in soil from the surface, no significant changes of groundwater quality caused by SMS weathering were observed even one year after removal of the SMS piles (3 years total). The groundwater had pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 4.3-5.7, 0.2-0.3 dS m(-1) and 0.7-2.2 mg L(-1), respectively. The major inorganic ions were Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-), with a concentration range of 2.5-68.3 mg L(-1). The results suggest that SMS leachate solutes migrated fairly slow in deep subsurface soils of the experimental field. Considering that leachate solutes may move several meters in soil through preferential flow channels, weathering of SMS in fields with a high seasonal groundwater table >or=5 m below the ground is recommended. Conservatively, SMS weathering should be conducted on compact surfaces and leachate be collected and reused as liquid fertilizers.  相似文献   
10.
采用硝酸-高氯酸微波消解水样,在盐酸介质中以硫脲-抗坏血酸处理样品,以硼氰化钾的氢氧化钠溶液为还原剂,氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法测定生活污水中的痕量砷.方法检出限<0.02μg/L,精密度0.14%,加标回收率92%~108%,操作简单,结果准确,重现性好.  相似文献   
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