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The continuous increase in waste generation warrants global management of waste to reduce the adverse economic, social, and environmental impact of waste while achieving goals for sustainability. The complexity of waste management systems due to different waste management practices renders such systems difficult to analyze. System dynamics (SD) approach aids in conceptualizing and analyzing the structure, interactions, and mode of behavior of the complex systems. The impact of the underlying components can therefore be assessed in an integrated way while the impact of possible policies on the system can be studied to implement appropriate decisions. This review summarizes various applications of SD pertinent to the waste management practices in different countries. Practices may include waste generation, reduction, reuse/recovery, recycling, and disposal. Each study supports regional-demanding targets in environmental, social, and economic scopes such as expanding landfill life span, implementing proper disposal fee, global warming mitigation, energy generation/saving, etc. The interacting variables in the WMS are specifically determined based on the defined problem, ultimate goal, and the type of waste. Generally, population and gross domestic product can increase the waste generation. An increase in waste reduction, source separation, and recycling rate could decrease the environmental impact, but it is not necessarily profitable from an economic perspective. Incentives to separate waste and knowledge about waste management are variables that always have a positive impact on the entire system.

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The optimization models presented here represent a synthesis between input-output analysis and mathematical programming models for environmental pollution control. The pivotal construct is a social cost for each unit of consumption; it is derived from the input-output analysis and is used in the objective function of the mathematical programming models which seek to optimize the final value of bill of goods and bads. The theory of optimization with relative bounded variables in nonlinear programming is developed and utilized.  相似文献   
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Coastal hazards and community-coping methods in Bangladesh   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Addressing one of the most vulnerable coastal communities in Bangladesh, this paper explores people’s perception and vulnerabilities to coastal hazards. At the same time, it investigates the methods that communities apply to cope with different coastal hazards. Findings revealed that people perceived an increase in both the intensity of hazards and their vulnerabilities. In spite of having a number of socio-economic and locational factors enhancing their vulnerabilities, the community is creating their own ways to cope with these hazards. For different aspects of life like shelter, employment, water supply, and health, communities apply different coping methods that vary with the types of hazard. Efforts have also been made by governments and NGOs to manage coastal hazards. By highlighting both community-coping methods and efforts of development organizations, this paper attempts to devise an integrated approach for managing the coastal hazards that occur in Bangladesh.  相似文献   
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We document mercury distribution in the tissues (kidney, liver, breast feathers and pectoral muscle) of a waterbird, the common coot (Fulica atra) from the Kani Barazan wetlands in north-western Iran. Bird samples were collected between November 2011 and January 2012, and mercury was assayed by using a Varian 220 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean levels of mercury in kidney, liver, breast feathers and pectoral muscle were 0.13, 0.22, 0.20 and 0.09 μg/g, respectively. Mercury concentrations in tissues of F. atra were in the following order: liver>feather>kidney>pectoral muscle. The mercury level was significantly (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05) different between kidneys, livers, pectoral muscles and feathers in F. atra. Although mercury concentrations were higher for all tissues in female birds compared with males, significant (p<0.05) differences were observed in muscle only.  相似文献   
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The present investigation was undertaken to study the induction of DNA damage by lead chloride (PbCl(2)) in freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Based on the LC(50) values of lead chloride of A. testudineus three different concentrations viz., 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L were selected to expose fish. The DNA damage was observed in the gill, kidney and liver tissue as the percentage of DNA in comet tails and comet heads in the tissue of the exposed fish. DNA damage at different concentrations showed sensitivity to particular tissue. The liver tissue exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) higher DNA damage, followed by kidney and gill. However, the DNA damage was found to be dose dependent; at 2 mg/L of PbCl(2) the tail and head DNA of liver tissue were 57.84% and 39.49%, in kidney tissue the values were 52.36% and 44.97% whereas in gill tissue the values were 48.86% and 48.96% respectively. The current study explored the utility of the comet assay for in vivo laboratory studies using A. testudineus species for screening the genotoxic potential of lead chloride.  相似文献   
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The effects of four weeks of aerobic exercise on histopathological and toxicological effects induced by nano ZnO and ZnO powders in male rats were evaluated. Tissue sections of liver and kidneys of ZnO and nano ZnO rats showed some histopathological changes, which were partly reverted by exercise. ZnO and nano ZnO treatments caused an increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α, while the mean of Interleukin 10 was declined. Exercise training enhanced the mean value of and declined mean level of in rats treated with ZnO and nano ZnO. The ZnO and ZnO groups demonstrated the highest means of insulin resistance, low density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride levels and lower mean value of compared to the other groups, while exercise resulted in improvement in mean of these factors.  相似文献   
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Inland (floodplain) fisheries remain the most important contributor to fish production in Bangladesh. They have in the past been administered to generate government revenue without due concern for sustainability or equity. Community Based Fisheries Management (CBFM) is a possible solution and was tested in 19 waterbodies (rivers and beels) during 1996-2000. The outcomes so far are assessed with respect to social, institutional, and physical context, and the interactions that arose in establishing CBFM. The lessons drawn are that: it was essential that communities obtained rights over the fisheries, strong facilitation was necessary, taking up visible resource management actions greatly helped, success was more likely in homogeneous communities, external threats were a strong limiting factor, clear boundaries and small fisheries were not so critical, and new institutions could be built with as much ease (or difficulty) as modifying existing ones. Effective well-defined partnerships of NGOs and government were not easy to establish but were sufficiently beneficial that in several locations new community institutions for fisheries management were established. This is a slow process, the sustainability of local management institutions is not yet established, although they continued during an interim period without funding, further phased support is planned to strengthen these organizations and to generate evidence of impacts and momentum to influence wider fisheries policy in and beyond Bangladesh.  相似文献   
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This research focuses on the fractionation and distribution patterns of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, and Fe) in surficial sediments collected from Shadegan Wildlife Refuge, the biggest wetland in southern part of Iran, to provide an overall classification for the sources of metals in the study area using a sequential extraction method. For this purpose, a four-step sequential extraction technique was applied to define the partitioning of the metals into different geochemical phases of the sediment. The results illustrated that the average total level of Zn, Cu, and Fe in surface sediments were 55.20 ± 16.04, 22.86 ± 5.68, and 25,979.01 ± 6917.91 μg/g dw, respectively. On the average, the chemical partitioning of all metals in most stations was in the order of residual >oxidizable-organic > acid-reducible > exchangeable. In the same way, the results of calculated geochemical indices revealed that Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations are mainly influenced by lithogenic origins. Compared with consensus-based SQGs, Cu was likely to result in occasionally harmful biological effects on the biota.

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