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1.
随着工业化和城市化进程的加速,大气气溶胶污染日趋严重,由气溶胶细粒子PM2.5污染造成的能见度恶化事件越来越多,中国东部地区灰霾天气迅速增加.灰霾天气的本质是细粒子气溶胶污染,与光化学污染相关联,形成灰霾天气的气溶胶组成非常复杂.近年来由于灰霾天气日趋严重引发的环境效应问题,以及气溶胶辐射强迫引发的气候效应问题,已引起科学界、政府部门和社会公众的广泛关注,成为热门话题.在此背景下,国家出台了新版《环境空气质量标准》(GB 3095-2012),增设PM2.5浓度限值,对环境监测、环境管理和环境评价提出了新的要求.通过分析中国大气污染背景、国际组织和其他国家的PM2.5标准,及近期热点问题,提出在环境监测、环境管理和环境评价过程中实施新标准,监控PM2.5的策略.  相似文献
2.
水生态环境质量评价体系研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
流域水生态环境质量评价体系是为流域环境管理提供基础数据,协助管理者开展流域保护措施的重要技术支持。该文深入剖析了发达国家典型水生态环境质量评价体系,归纳分析了其体系框架、构成特点、方法适用性和借鉴意义。结合前期研究基础,对评价体系的技术内容进行了完善和补充,明确了参照点位的选择原则,补充了评价方法选择的技术路线,提出了增设和实施不同监测计划的方案,最终提出生态环境质量评价技术体系框架。  相似文献
3.
周刚 《干旱环境监测》2003,17(2):93-95,116
主要从生态恢复方面对甘家湖荒漠林区的恢复措施及其所产生的环境效益、社会效益及综合效应进行论证,分析甘家湖荒漠林区目前的状况及采取恢复措施后所能达到的效果。  相似文献
4.
A critical review of building environmental assessment tools   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Since the field of environmental assessment tools for buildings is vast, the aim of this study is to clarify that field by analysing and categorising existing tools. The differences between the tools are discussed and the current situation within the tools is critically analysed. However, the comparison of the tools is difficult, if not impossible. For example, the tools are designed for assessing different types of buildings, and they emphasise different phases of the life cycle. In addition to environmental aspects, sustainable building includes economic and social aspects. The shift from green building to sustainable building and the future requirements are challenging for building environmental assessment tools. Furthermore, the benefits of using the tools should be analysed — how the tools and their results have affected decision making?  相似文献
5.
Estimating the Ecological Condition of the Estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Monitoring of estuaries in the Louisianian Province was performed annually from 1991–1994 to assess ecological conditions on a regional scale. We found over the four years of monitoring, 25±6% of Gulf of Mexico estuarine sediments in the Louisianian Province displayed poor biological conditions, as measured by benthic community structure, and 14±7% of the area was characterized by poor water clarity, the presence of marine debris, and elevated levels of fish tissue contaminants. Using statistical associations to discern relationships between ecological condition and exposure or stressor data has shown that much of this degraded' condition co-occurs with sediment contamination.  相似文献
6.
Estimating the Ecological Condition of the Estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Monitoring of estuaries in the Louisianian Province was performed annually from 1991–1994 to assess ecological conditions on a regional scale. We found over the four years of monitoring, 25±6% of Gulf of Mexico estuarine sediments in the Louisianian Province displayed poor biological conditions, as measured by benthic community structure, and 14±7% of the area was characterized by poor water clarity, the presence of marine debris, and elevated levels of fish tissue contaminants. Using statistical associations to discern relationships between ecological condition and exposure or stressor data has shown that much of this degraded' condition co-occurs with sediment contamination.  相似文献
7.
A methodology for rating the suitability of sites forthe location of industrial facilities is formulated and appliedto the case of a coal-fired power plant location. The methodologycomprises two major interlinked components: the environmentalplant location indexing component, which involves theidentification, scaling and weighting of environmentalsensitivity factors; and the impact analysis component, whichinvolves the superimposition of the pollution generation impactsof an industrial facility on spatially gridded zones of variousenvironmental sensitivities. For each rectangular areal unitdefined by a square grid, the Unit Pollution Potential Index isdetermined by the severity and distribution of key environmentalsensitivity factors and the coverage of superimposed pollutanteffects as determined by contaminant fate and transport models.For any alternative site of a planned facility, the summation ofthe unit indices over the area of influence of the facilityprovides the quantitative Pollution Index, which can be used as abasis for comparison of alternative sites for planned facilities.For this paper, this methodology is applied to the hypotheticalcase of the siting of a coal-fired power plant in thenortheastern region of the United States, in which threealternative sites are considered. The three sites: A, B and Cyielded indices of 47.83, 47.91 and 47.6, respectively, indicatingthat site C is the most suitable for siting the power plant.  相似文献
8.
对利用世界银行贷款灌溉农业二期项目(1998年2002年)江苏省项目区的水环境进行了监测与评价。项目实施期间,对地表灌溉用水河段监测结果表明,各监测河段参评指标的单项污染指数及综合污染指数均小于1,地表灌溉水不构成单项指标污染和综合污染,其水质符合农业灌溉用水水质要求;对地表灌溉退水河段监测结果表明,退水河段中仅有部分监测指标比灌溉用水中的相应指标有所升高,但不构成综合污染,退水水质仍能满足其他地区农业灌溉用水水质要求;对地下灌溉水测井的监测结果表明,有个别地下灌溉井单项指标超标,但所测井的综合污染指数均远远小于l,对地下水环境未造成不利影响。  相似文献
9.
In this paper, we first review the development of China’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system in the past 30 years. Then we compare the framework and operational procedures of China’s new EIA law with those of the EU EIA Directive. We also compare public participation, as well as sanctions and control in the two EIA systems. In addition, we identify where the processes in both EIA systems are similar or different from one another. By comparison, we noted that there are at least three obvious weaknesses in China’s EIA system: (1) the application of new models for EIA legislation; (2) the improvement of EIA guidance and education; and (3) the enhancement of public participation in EIA process. Our study indicates that these three major shortcomings should be overcome and improved in China’s EIA system, when compared with the EU EIA system.  相似文献
10.
The planning system is significant because of its capacity to determine the quality of the built environment as well as the health, well-being and quality of life of the individuals and communities therein. Development planning is especially important because of the long-term impact of the decisions. This paper was developed in response to increasing recognition amongst HIA practitioners in Scotland of the importance of planning for health. It focuses on the relationship between the planning system in Scotland, specifically the Development Planning element of it, and population health and considers how the health impact assessment (HIA) approach can facilitate and support joint working with planners. In particular, consideration is given to the potential impact of the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the linkages between health, HIA and planning.  相似文献
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