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1.
The present state of accident hazard at work in the Polish mining industry is presented. A comparison is made of the accident indices in relation to other countries. A reference is made to the work safety management system implemented in the mines. Safety management is discussed in terms of risk management. On the basis of the natural death index and that of accidents at work, numerical scales are presented defining the limits of the inadmissable, tolerable, and acceptable risk. The course of variation of risk indices for fatal, serious, and minor accidents is evaluated. The results of the assessment for all kinds of accidents at work in the mining industry are presented.  相似文献   
2.
Objectives. The present study was designed to investigate the simultaneous effects of physical, psychosocial and other work-related risk factors on the work ability index (WAI) score among industrial workers. Methods. This study used a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire survey. A total of 280 workers were included in the study. Data were collected using three questionnaires including the Persian version of the WAI, the Persian version of the job content questionnaire and an author-developed measure (to assess work-related factors, health-related factors and socio-demographic characteristics). Results. The majority of the participants were young, but they had poor WAI scores (mean 37.3?±?6.4) and 44.3% of them had poor or moderate work ability. Occupational accidents and injuries were found to be the strongest predictors of WAI scores. Additionally, there was a strong association between WAI scores and supervisor support, skill discretion, occupational training, sleep quality, work nature and educational level. Conclusions. Intervention programs should focus on improving supervisor support, sleep quality, job skills and knowledge and on decreasing physical and mental work demands. Additionally, implementing a comprehensive occupational health and ergonomics program for controlling and reducing hazardous working environments and occupational injury rates should be considered.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

Managing occupational safety in any kind of industry, especially in processing, is very important and complex. This paper develops a new method for occupational risk assessment in the presence of uncertainties. Uncertain values of hazardous factors and consequence frequencies are described with linguistic expressions defined by a safety management team. They are modeled with fuzzy sets. Consequence severities depend on current hazardous factors, and their values are calculated with the proposed procedure. The proposed model is tested with real-life data from fruit processing firms in Central Serbia.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

Differences between the scientific and environmental policy communities regarding marine environmental protection strategies are discussed in the context of the nature and extent of scientific influence on marine environmental policy. Public perceptions of the nature and severity of marine pollution frequently differ from scientific assessments. the thesis of this paper is that the increasing influence of public perception on marine environmental protection policy is leading to the adoption of simplistic and unnecessarily extreme approaches to marine pollution prevention and to a reduced reliance on science. This trend is illustrated by some recent international developments and some suggestions are made towards enhancing the influence of science on marine protection policy.  相似文献   
5.
The current research provides guidance on the prevention and mitigation of dust explosion using a Quantitative Risk Management Framework (QRMF). Using concepts drawn from previous studies, the framework consists of three main steps: (i) a new combined safety management protocol, (ii) the use of DESC (Dust Explosion Simulation Code) and FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) to assess explosion consequences and likelihood, respectively, and (iii) application of the hierarchy of controls (inherent, engineered and procedural safety). QRMF assessment of an industrial case study showed that the original process was at high risk. DESC simulations and Probit equations determined the destructive percentages. FTAs revealed high probabilities of explosion occurrence; in addition, detailed individual and societal risks calculations were made, before and after the framework was applied. Based on the hierarchy of controls technique, the framework showed significant risk reduction to the point where the residual risk was acceptable for the process.  相似文献   
6.
The key objective of this paper is the presentation of a new risk assessment tool for underground coal mines based on a simplified semi-quantitative estimation and assessment method.In order to determine the risk of explosion of any work process or activity in underground coal mines it is necessary to assess the risk. The proposed method is based on a Risk Index obtained as a product of three factors: frequency of each individual scenario Pucm, associated severity consequences Cucm and exposure time to explosive atmospheres Eucm. The influence of exposure time is usually not taken into account up to now. Moreover, the exposure to explosive atmospheres may affect factors of hazardous event probability as much as its consequences. There are many definitions of exposure to explosive atmospheres but in the case of underground coal mines the exposure is defined as frequency risk of firedamp and coal dust. The risk estimation and risk assessment are based on the developed of a risk matrix.The proposed methodology allows not only the estimation of the explosion risk but also gives an approach to decide if the proposal investment is well-justified or not in order to improve safety.  相似文献   
7.
This paper presents a novel quantitative risk analysis process for urban natural gas pipeline networks using geographical information systems (GIS). The process incorporates an assessment of failure rates of integrated pipeline networks, a quantitative analysis model of accident consequences, and assessments of individual and societal risks. Firstly, the failure rates of the pipeline network are calculated using empirical formulas influenced by parameters such as external interference, corrosion, construction defects, and ground movements. Secondly, the impacts of accidents due to gas leakage, diffusion, fires, and explosions are analyzed by calculating the area influenced by poisoning, burns, and deaths. Lastly, based on the previous analyses, individual risks and social risks are calculated. The application of GIS technology helps strengthen the quantitative risk analysis (QRA) model and allows construction of a QRA system for urban gas pipeline networks that can aid pipeline management staff in demarcating high risk areas requiring more frequent inspections.  相似文献   
8.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 780 Security Risk Assessment (SRA) Methodology was published in June 2013 as a U. S. standard for security risk assessments on petroleum and petrochemical facilities. The standard represents a model standard for evaluating all security risks of petroleum and petrochemical infrastructure and operations and assists industries in more thoroughly and consistently conducting SRAs. The 2013 Standard is an update from the previous API/NPRA SRA Methodology (2004) and focuses on expanding functional utility without changing the basic methodology.The methodology can be applied to a wide range of assets even beyond the typical operating facilities of the industry. This includes refining and petrochemical manufacturing operations, pipelines, and transportation operations including truck, marine, and rail, as well as worker and executive security, housing compounds, and remote operational sites. The new standard describes the most efficient and thorough approach for assessing security risks widely applicable to the types of facilities operated by the industry and the security issues they face. It is voluntary but has been adopted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Interior High Commission for Industrial Security as the mandatory security risk assessment methodology for industrial facilities.This paper examines the key elements of the ANSI/API SRA process and discusses how forward thinking organizations may use risk-based performance metrics to systematically analyze facility security postures and identify appropriately scaled and fiscally responsible countermeasures based on current and projected threats. The AcuTech Consulting Group developed the methodology under contract to the API, and the author was the project manager for the project.  相似文献   
9.
Natech accidents at industrial plants are an emerging risk with possibly serious consequences. For the mitigation of natech risk, authorities need to identify natech prone areas in a systematic manner. In order to facilitate probabilistic natech risk mapping, a unified methodology was developed that is based on the estimation of on-site natural hazard parameters, determination of damage probabilities of plant units, and assessment of probability and severity of possibly triggered natech events. The methodology was implemented as an on-line, extensible risk assessment and mapping software framework called RAPID-N, which allows rapid local and regional natech risk assessment and mapping with minimal data input. RAPID-N features an innovative data estimation framework to complete missing input data, such as on-site natural hazard parameters and plant unit characteristics. The framework is also used for damage assessment and natech consequence analysis, and allows easy modification of input parameters, dynamic generation of consequence models according to data availability, and extension of models by adding new equations or substituting existing ones with alternatives. Results are presented as summary reports and interactive risk maps, which can be used for land-use and emergency planning purposes by using scenario hazards, or for rapid natech consequence assessment following actual disasters. As proof of concept, the framework provides a custom implementation of the U.S. EPA's RMP Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysis methodology to perform natech consequence analysis and includes comprehensive data for earthquakes. It is readily extendible to other natural hazards and more comprehensive risk assessment methods.  相似文献   
10.
基于GIS的区域干旱灾害风险区划研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
根据自然灾害风险理论,从致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境暴露性、承灾体易损性、防灾减灾能力等4个子系统选取指标,建立干旱灾害风险指数模型,结合GIS中自然断点分类法进行聚类分析,全面综合地分析各地区相关性和差异性.以淮河流域为研究实例,根据拟定的区划原则,采用“自下而上”和“自上而下”相结合的区划方法,将淮河流域分为6个旱灾风险分区,并对区划结果进行分析,为因地制宜地采取工程和非工程的防灾减灾措施,提供参考依据.  相似文献   
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