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1.
太湖沉积物重金属污染及生态风险性评价   总被引:26,自引:6,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
对1993年~1999年所采集的太湖表层沉积物中重金属含量进行了统计分析和生态风险性评价.结果表明,太湖沉积物的pH值呈中性至弱碱性,较适合于沉积物中粘土矿物及腐殖质对重金属的吸附;太湖大部分地区沉积物未受到重金属污染,且沉积物中重金属处于安全状态.沉积物生态风险性指数评价结果也表明,太湖大部分地区目前无重金属生态危害.  相似文献
2.
土壤重金属污染生态风险评价方法综述   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
生态风险评价是风险论与生态学、环境科学、地学等多种学科相互交叉的边缘学科.以土壤生态系统为对象,介绍了目前已有的几类重金属污染生态风险评价方法,包括概念模型法、数学模型法、指数法、形态分析法、植物培养法等.指出根据研究目的与污染特性选择适当的评价方法,可以为土壤生态风险管理提供科学信息.  相似文献
3.
空气中挥发性有机物污染状况及健康风险评价   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
为了了解南京某县空气中挥发性有机污染物(VOCs)的污染状况,采用苏码罐采样-气相色谱-质谱法分析了该县不同功能区空气中的VOCs,探讨了其可能来源并采用国际公认的评价模型,对空气中的VOCs进行了健康风险评价。  相似文献
4.
Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results areinputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the numberof road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions andambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOCappear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating andtraffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysisshow that the levels of all `classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant healthimpact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entirepopulation from 1.3 to 1.7 years.  相似文献
5.
天津近郊农田土壤重金属污染特征及潜在生态风险评价   总被引:8,自引:5,他引:3  
以天津近郊西青区主要农产品生产基地农田表层土壤(0~20cm)作为调查对象,分析了土壤中重金属As、Hg、Zn、Pb、Cu、Cr和Cd的含量,通过数据统计分析,各项重金属平均含量均低于《土壤环境质量标准》(GB 15618—1995)二级标准,但高于天津土壤背景值和全国土壤背景值,Cd、Cu、Hg在个别点位出现超标现象。多数点位土壤内梅罗综合污染指数处于清洁水平。潜在生态风险评价表明,各点位土壤重金属潜在生态风险指数(RI)为12.96~104.49,均处于轻微生态风险水平。  相似文献
6.
垃圾填埋场地下水污染对居民健康的风险评价   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
调查了某垃圾填埋场地下水和周边居民饮用水中的As、Hg等重金属和挥发酚等有机物的污染状况,运用美国环保局的健康风险计算模型,评估了该垃圾填埋场地下水对周边居民的潜在健康风险。结果表明,各类人群对4种有阈化合物的饮食和皮肤暴露的终身健康危险度在8.2×10^-11~1.3×10^-10之间,均低于可以接受的风险水平10^-6;对As的终身超额健康危险度在3.1×10^-7~4.9×10^-7之间,表明地下水中砷污染对居民潜在的致癌风险不明显。各类人群通过皮肤对Hg、As、Cd和挥发酚的暴露剂量比通过饮水暴露的剂量高0.7倍~14.5倍,皮肤暴露将是地下水影响人体健康并构成潜在风险的重要途径。  相似文献
7.
张家口市洋河、桑干河流域水环境健康风险评价   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
张家口市洋河、桑干河流域近几年来水质持续改善,为逐步恢复流域水质和下游官厅水库饮用水备用水源功能提供了条件.文章利用水环境健康风险评价模型,选取了2006年该流域水质监测数据,对流域内10个监测断面由饮水途径引起的水环境健康风险进行了评价.结果表明,该流域水体对人体健康危害最大的是化学致癌物Cr(VI),在各个监测断面中Cr(VI)的个人年风险均超过ICRP推荐的标准.同时,化学致癌物对人体健康危害的个人年风险超过非致癌物的个人年风险;因此对该流域水体的含化学致癌物Cr(VI)和As废水进行控制和治理是降低水环境健康风险的有效途径.  相似文献
8.
Ground-water flow and solute-transport simulation modeling are major components of most exposure and risk assessments of contaminated aquifers. Model simulations provide information on the spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants in subsurface media but are difficult to apply to karst aquifers in which conduit flow is important. Ground-water flow and solute transport in karst conduits typically display rapid-flow velocities, turbulent-flow regimes, concentrated pollutant-mass discharge, and exhibit open-channel or closed-conduit flow. Conventional ground-water models, dependent on the applicability of Darcy`s law, are inappropriate when applied to karst aquifers because of the (1) nonapplicability of Darcian-flow parameters, (2) typically nonlaminar flow regime, and (3) inability to locate the karst conduits through which most flow and contaminant transport occurs. Surface-water flow and solute-transport models conditioned on a set of parameters determined empirically from quantitative ground-water tracing studies may be effectively used to render fate-and-transport values of contaminants in karst conduits. Hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters developed in a companion paper were used in the surface-water model, TOXI5, to simulate hypothetical slug and continuous-source releases of ethylbenzene in a karst conduit. TOXI5 simulation results showed considerable improvement for predicted ethylbenzene-transport rates and concentrations over qualitative tracing and analytical ground-water model results. Ethylbenzene concentrations predicted by TOXI5 simulations were evaluated in exposure and risk assessment models.  相似文献
9.
太湖饮用水源地水环境健康风险评价   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1  
介绍了水环境健康风险评价方法,并根据太湖饮用水源地水环境质量监测数据,对4个饮用水源地通过饮水途径引起的水环境健康风险进行了评价。结果表明,2005~2009年,4个饮用水源地水环境健康个人年风险多数超过国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)推荐的标准,主要风险因子为化学致癌物六价铬和砷;化学致癌物对人体健康危害个人年风险度远高于非化学致癌物;化学致癌物所致健康危害的个人年风险呈波动降低变化,非化学致癌物所致健康危害的个人年风险基本保持稳定。  相似文献
10.
An Overview of EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by EPA's Office of Research and Development. The pilot assessment will be done for the mid-Atlantic region and builds on data collected for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. ReVA is being developed to identify those ecosystems most vulnerable to being lost or degraded in the next 5 to 50 years and to elucidate which stressors cause the greatest risk to ecosystem goods and services. The goal here is not exact predictions, but an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes we should expect over the next few decades. As such, ReVA represents a new risk paradigm for EPA that will require innovative approaches to combine existing knowledge, focus new research, and synthesize many types of information into a meaningful assessment designed to inform environmental decision-makers about future environmental risk.  相似文献
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