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1.
The present state of accident hazard at work in the Polish mining industry is presented. A comparison is made of the accident indices in relation to other countries. A reference is made to the work safety management system implemented in the mines. Safety management is discussed in terms of risk management. On the basis of the natural death index and that of accidents at work, numerical scales are presented defining the limits of the inadmissable, tolerable, and acceptable risk. The course of variation of risk indices for fatal, serious, and minor accidents is evaluated. The results of the assessment for all kinds of accidents at work in the mining industry are presented.  相似文献   
2.
Abstract

Managing occupational safety in any kind of industry, especially in processing, is very important and complex. This paper develops a new method for occupational risk assessment in the presence of uncertainties. Uncertain values of hazardous factors and consequence frequencies are described with linguistic expressions defined by a safety management team. They are modeled with fuzzy sets. Consequence severities depend on current hazardous factors, and their values are calculated with the proposed procedure. The proposed model is tested with real-life data from fruit processing firms in Central Serbia.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

Differences between the scientific and environmental policy communities regarding marine environmental protection strategies are discussed in the context of the nature and extent of scientific influence on marine environmental policy. Public perceptions of the nature and severity of marine pollution frequently differ from scientific assessments. the thesis of this paper is that the increasing influence of public perception on marine environmental protection policy is leading to the adoption of simplistic and unnecessarily extreme approaches to marine pollution prevention and to a reduced reliance on science. This trend is illustrated by some recent international developments and some suggestions are made towards enhancing the influence of science on marine protection policy.  相似文献   
4.
The current research provides guidance on the prevention and mitigation of dust explosion using a Quantitative Risk Management Framework (QRMF). Using concepts drawn from previous studies, the framework consists of three main steps: (i) a new combined safety management protocol, (ii) the use of DESC (Dust Explosion Simulation Code) and FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) to assess explosion consequences and likelihood, respectively, and (iii) application of the hierarchy of controls (inherent, engineered and procedural safety). QRMF assessment of an industrial case study showed that the original process was at high risk. DESC simulations and Probit equations determined the destructive percentages. FTAs revealed high probabilities of explosion occurrence; in addition, detailed individual and societal risks calculations were made, before and after the framework was applied. Based on the hierarchy of controls technique, the framework showed significant risk reduction to the point where the residual risk was acceptable for the process.  相似文献   
5.
The key objective of this paper is the presentation of a new risk assessment tool for underground coal mines based on a simplified semi-quantitative estimation and assessment method.In order to determine the risk of explosion of any work process or activity in underground coal mines it is necessary to assess the risk. The proposed method is based on a Risk Index obtained as a product of three factors: frequency of each individual scenario Pucm, associated severity consequences Cucm and exposure time to explosive atmospheres Eucm. The influence of exposure time is usually not taken into account up to now. Moreover, the exposure to explosive atmospheres may affect factors of hazardous event probability as much as its consequences. There are many definitions of exposure to explosive atmospheres but in the case of underground coal mines the exposure is defined as frequency risk of firedamp and coal dust. The risk estimation and risk assessment are based on the developed of a risk matrix.The proposed methodology allows not only the estimation of the explosion risk but also gives an approach to decide if the proposal investment is well-justified or not in order to improve safety.  相似文献   
6.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 780 Security Risk Assessment (SRA) Methodology was published in June 2013 as a U. S. standard for security risk assessments on petroleum and petrochemical facilities. The standard represents a model standard for evaluating all security risks of petroleum and petrochemical infrastructure and operations and assists industries in more thoroughly and consistently conducting SRAs. The 2013 Standard is an update from the previous API/NPRA SRA Methodology (2004) and focuses on expanding functional utility without changing the basic methodology.The methodology can be applied to a wide range of assets even beyond the typical operating facilities of the industry. This includes refining and petrochemical manufacturing operations, pipelines, and transportation operations including truck, marine, and rail, as well as worker and executive security, housing compounds, and remote operational sites. The new standard describes the most efficient and thorough approach for assessing security risks widely applicable to the types of facilities operated by the industry and the security issues they face. It is voluntary but has been adopted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Interior High Commission for Industrial Security as the mandatory security risk assessment methodology for industrial facilities.This paper examines the key elements of the ANSI/API SRA process and discusses how forward thinking organizations may use risk-based performance metrics to systematically analyze facility security postures and identify appropriately scaled and fiscally responsible countermeasures based on current and projected threats. The AcuTech Consulting Group developed the methodology under contract to the API, and the author was the project manager for the project.  相似文献   
7.
Natech accidents at industrial plants are an emerging risk with possibly serious consequences. For the mitigation of natech risk, authorities need to identify natech prone areas in a systematic manner. In order to facilitate probabilistic natech risk mapping, a unified methodology was developed that is based on the estimation of on-site natural hazard parameters, determination of damage probabilities of plant units, and assessment of probability and severity of possibly triggered natech events. The methodology was implemented as an on-line, extensible risk assessment and mapping software framework called RAPID-N, which allows rapid local and regional natech risk assessment and mapping with minimal data input. RAPID-N features an innovative data estimation framework to complete missing input data, such as on-site natural hazard parameters and plant unit characteristics. The framework is also used for damage assessment and natech consequence analysis, and allows easy modification of input parameters, dynamic generation of consequence models according to data availability, and extension of models by adding new equations or substituting existing ones with alternatives. Results are presented as summary reports and interactive risk maps, which can be used for land-use and emergency planning purposes by using scenario hazards, or for rapid natech consequence assessment following actual disasters. As proof of concept, the framework provides a custom implementation of the U.S. EPA's RMP Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysis methodology to perform natech consequence analysis and includes comprehensive data for earthquakes. It is readily extendible to other natural hazards and more comprehensive risk assessment methods.  相似文献   
8.
Nowadays, more people tend to spend their recreational time in large national parks, and trace metal(loid)s in soils have attracted long-term attention due to their possible harm to human health. To investigate the pollution levels, potential sources and health risks of trace metal(loid)s in road soils, a total of eight trace metal(loid)s (including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) from 47 soil samples along roads were studied in the Huangshan National Park in Southeast China. The results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg appeared different degrees of pollution compared with their corresponding background values. According to the pollution indices, Hg and Cd were recognized as significant pollutants presenting moderate to high ecological risk. Combining principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization model, the results showed that traffic, industrial, agricultural and natural sources were the potential origins of trace metal(loid)s in this area, with contribution rates of 39.93%, 25.92%, 10.53% and 23.62%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks were all negligible, while the carcinogenic risk of As was higher than the limit (1 × 10−6). Moreover, children were more susceptible to trace metal(loid)s by ingestion which appeared to be a more important exposure pathway than dermal contact and inhalation. The contribution rates of different sources to non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks were similar among children and adults, while traffic and industrial sources have a significant impact on health risks. This study will give more insights to control the environmental risks of trace metal(loid)s in national parks.  相似文献   
9.
天山北坡经济带土壤重金属来源及污染评价   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为定量识别与评价天山北坡经济带中奇台、吉木萨尔、阜康等地区土壤重金属来源与生态风险,对该区域171个表层土壤中Zn、Cu、Cr、Pb、Hg、As和Cd7种常见重金属的含量进行测定.运用统计学方法、主成分分析、正定矩阵因子分解(PMF)与潜在生态风险指数进行重金属污染程度评价以及来源分析.结果表明,研究区土壤Zn、Cu与Cr之外,Pb、Hg、As和Cd分别超过了新疆土壤背景值4.1、2.0、8.0和48.0倍;与国家土壤重金属风险筛选值相比,Zn、Cr和Hg浓度在安全范围内,Cu与Pb有少部分样点污染较严重,超出筛选值,As与Cd平均值分别超出筛选值的3.09倍与19.17倍.污染来源分析结果显示研究区土壤中的重金属元素主要来自于燃煤源、交通运输、大气降尘、农工业排放和自然因素.生态风险评价结果分析表明,Zn、Cu、Cr和Pb处于轻微风险状态;Cd处于极高风险水平;73.68%的Hg处于中等风险,18.71%处于高风险;43.86%的As生态风险处于中等风险,51.46%处于高风险.综合潜在生态指数介于472~2575.69,Cd对综合潜在生态指数贡献率达到了89.24%,其次是As与Hg,表明研究区Cd对土壤生态环境危害很大,As与Hg也需要特别引起重视.  相似文献   
10.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), as persistent toxic substances(PTS), have been widely monitored in coastal environment, including seawater and sediment. However, scientific monitoring methods, like ecological risk assessment and integrated biomarker response, still need massive researches to verify their availabilities. This study was performed in March, May, August and October of 2018 at eight sites, Yellow River estuary(S1), Guangli Port(S2), Xiaying(S3), Laizhou(S4), Inner Bay(S5), Ou...  相似文献   
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