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1.
Rice straw can be used as a renewable fuel for heat and power generation. It is a viable mean of replacing fossil fuels and preventing pollution caused by open burning, especially in the areas where this residual biomass is generated. Nevertheless, the thermal conversion of rice straw can cause some operating problems such as slag formation, which negatively affects thermal conversion systems. So, the main objective of this research is studying the combustion behavior of rice straw samples collected from various regions by applying thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, the thermal behavior of ashes from rice straw was also analyzed in order to detect their melting points, and ash sintering was detected at different temperatures within the range between 550 and 1000 °C. Since washing rice straw with water could reduce the content of undesirable inorganic compounds related to the ash fusibility, samples of washed rice straw were analyzed under combustion conditions to investigate its differences regarding the thermal behavior of rice straw. The results showed that rice straw washing led to a significant improvement in its thermal behavior, since it reduced the ash contents and sintering formation.  相似文献   
2.
近年来,江苏油田加大采油清洁生产系列工艺技术的研究力度,自行研发了插管卡堵水采油工艺、侧钻井卡堵水工艺、带压作业技术、中频感应加热单管集输工艺、太阳能辅助电加热技术等一系列新型节能、降耗、减污、增效的采油清洁生产工艺技术,并在油田开发中得到了广泛的应用,取得了明显的经济和社会效益。  相似文献   
3.
The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) has provided the European Member States with a range of interacting governance challenges. This article studies three of these (the need for new administrative arrangements, public participation, and the enforced strict time frame). It questions how these interacting governance challenges were addressed in implementing the WFD in the Netherlands – a particularly interesting country since the European Commission assesses its implementation process in relatively positive terms, while an in-depth study reported on in this article tells a contrasting story. Based on this study, the article concludes that especially the interaction effects between the governance challenges may help us to better understand the outcome of the WFD-implementation process, and to provide more suitable advice as to how to improve the implementation process in future rounds.  相似文献   
4.
中国汞污染的来源、成因及控制技术路径分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
汞是一种能长期存在于环境且具有全球迁移性的污染物.汞污染防治是一个复杂的系统工程,涉及多部门、多领域、多行业,国家需要在政策、管理和技术等方面采取综合的战略措施推进汞污染防治.本文基于汞污染的环境和社会影响,分析了中国汞污染的来源、成因并评估了中国汞管理体系,结合中国参加全球汞公约谈判的特定背景,识别出汞污染防控的优先行业,包括汞的无意排放优先控制行业:燃煤、有色金属冶炼、汞矿开采和含汞废物处理;汞的有意使用优先控制行业:电石法聚氯乙烯生产,医疗产品、荧光灯和电池生产.本文也进一步提出了汞污染控制技术路径,包括构建汞风险管理和识别平台、完善汞管理体系、加强环境技术研发、推进绿色转型、保护环境和公众健康等.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract

Differences between the scientific and environmental policy communities regarding marine environmental protection strategies are discussed in the context of the nature and extent of scientific influence on marine environmental policy. Public perceptions of the nature and severity of marine pollution frequently differ from scientific assessments. the thesis of this paper is that the increasing influence of public perception on marine environmental protection policy is leading to the adoption of simplistic and unnecessarily extreme approaches to marine pollution prevention and to a reduced reliance on science. This trend is illustrated by some recent international developments and some suggestions are made towards enhancing the influence of science on marine protection policy.  相似文献   
6.
Abstract

There are three major factors affecting the coastal environment in Taiwan: tidal current, long-shore current and land subsidence. in Taiwan, most industrial areas are located on the southwestern coast. Most of the pollutants from the factories are discharged directly to the ocean, harbours or rivers. the pollutants in harbours or rivers will eventually be delivered to coastal waters. There, the tidal current is the major force dispersing the pollutants nearshore. the polluted water extends to an area about 5 km on both sides from the discharge source, and within about 3–4 km off-shore. in this study, Hsien-Da Harbour in southwestern Taiwan is cited to explain the effects of tidal current on the coastal environment. the long-shore current induced by breaking waves is the major force shaping the coastal morphology. Along the western coast of Taiwan, the long-shore current mainly flows northward along the southern section, and southward along the northern section. in the last one hundred years, in general, the coast has been eroded along the northern and southern sections of western coast, and some reclaimed lands were formed in the middle section. Recently, erosion in some coastal zones is quite serious because of excess groundwater extraction, especially along the southwestern coast. Groundwater extraction might also induce land subsidence. There are some areas near the coast which suffer serious land subsidence problems.  相似文献   
7.
Abstract

Analysis of inorganic and organic contaminants in foodstuffs aids in understanding the human exposure to these compounds via consumption. In this study, an edible mushroom species (Leccinum scabrum) and top soil samples were analysed for essential and toxic substances including phosphorus and inorganic elements over a period of three fruiting seasons. Analysis of silver (Ag), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) in mushrooms and topsoil were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) with ultrasonic cross flow nebulizer. Total mercury was determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). The results exhibited wide variation in concentrations of metals between soil and mushroom (cap and stipes) during three fruiting seasons. Positive bioconcentration factors (BFCs) indicate on bioaccumulation of several metals including, Cd, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb and Zn in caps and stipes of fruitbodies of this mushroom, while other metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sr were not exhibiting significant positive BFCs. Over a period studied, the caps were characterised by different (p?<?0.05) concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb and Sr. Contamination profiles, temporal fluctuations, BCFs should be taken into consideration when assessing the nutritional value of this mushroom.  相似文献   
8.
Abstract

A tubular device has been developed making it possible to obtain layered samples of loosely aggregated, flocculent material from bogs or eutrophic lakes. The samples are up to 50 cm long and 15 cm in diameter. The sampler is free from protuberances and intact, layered samples can be taken. The tubular part of the sampler is about 85 em long, the walls of the lower 25‐cm portion harbouring a pneumatic closing mechanism which is controlled from above the water surface. An extendible handle for manipulating the sampler and for guiding it into place, is fastened to the upper end of the sampling tube. The performance and the operation of the sampler in the field are described.  相似文献   
9.
Abstract

This paper describes the development of apparatus suitable for direct supercritical fluid extraction of organics from water. Results are presented for the extraction of pentachlorophenol present in water at concentrations of the order of 0.1 ppm. The effect of changes in apparatus design and supercritical fluid flow rate on recovery are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
Arora, Kapil, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, and James L. Baker, 2010. Review of Pesticide Retention Processes Occurring in Buffer Strips Receiving Agricultural Runoff. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(3):618-647. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00438.x Abstract: Review of the published results shows that the retention of the two pesticide carrier phases (runoff volume and sediment mass) influences pesticide mass transport through buffer strips. Data averaged across different studies showed that the buffer strips retained 45% of runoff volume (ranging between 0 and 100%) and 76% of sediment mass (ranging between 2 and 100%). Sorption (soil sorption coefficient, Koc) is one key pesticide property affecting its transport with the two carrier phases through buffer strips. Data from different studies for pesticide mass retention for weakly (Koc < 100), moderately (100 < Koc < 1,000), and strongly sorbed pesticides (Koc > 1,000) averaged (with ranges) 61 (0-100), 63 (0-100), and 76 (53-100) %, respectively. Because there are more data for runoff volume and sediment mass retention, the average retentions of both carrier phases were used to calculate that the buffer strips would retain 45% of weakly to moderately sorbed and 70% of strongly sorbed pesticides on an average basis. As pesticide mass retention presented is only an average across several studies with different experimental setups, the application of these results to actual field conditions should be carefully examined.  相似文献   
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