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1.
Acid mine drainage (AMD), resulting from open-cast coal mining, is currently one of the largest environmental challenges facing the mining industry. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and maintenance of different AMD treatment options typically employed. LCA is a well-reported tool but is not documented for AMD treatment systems despite their ubiquitous implementation worldwide. This study conducted detailed LCA analysis for various passive and active AMD treatment approaches implemented or considered at a major coal mine in New Zealand using a comparative functional unit of kg acidity removed per day for each treatment option. Eight treatment scenarios were assessed including active limestone and hydrated lime treatments, and compared to passive treatments using limestone and waste materials such as mussel shells. Both midpoint and endpoint LCA impact categories were assessed. Generally, the active treatment scenarios demonstrated greater LCA impacts compared to an equivalent level of treatment for the passive treatment approaches. Lime slaking had the greatest LCA impacts, while passive treatment approaches incurred consistently less impacts except for one passive treatment with a purchased energy scenario. A 50% reduction in transportation distances resulted in the lowest LCA impacts for all scenarios. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the environmental and social impacts of AMD treatment for the mining industry.  相似文献   
2.
In policy support of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, life cycle assessment (LCA) can serve to compare the environmental or economic impacts of two or more options for waste processing. The scope of waste management LCAs generally focuses less attention on future developments, e.g., where will recycling take place, and more on the environmental performance of prototypes, e.g., the incineration of all waste compared to recycling. To provide more robust support for Swiss waste glass-packaging disposal, scenarios of Swiss waste glass-packaging are assessed from a life cycle perspective. The scenarios consist in schemes for the disposal of the total amount of Swiss waste glass-packaging, i.e., different combinations of recycling and downcycling in Switzerland or abroad developed in Part I, Meylan et al. (2013). In this article (Part II), the disposal schemes are assessed with respect to eco-efficiency, an indicator that combines total environmental impacts and gross value added in Switzerland. Results show that no policy alternative guarantees environmental impact reductions and gross value added gains under all developments of exogenous constraints. Downcycling to foam glass in Switzerland is not only an environmentally sound disposal option, but it also buffers gross value added losses in case domestic recycling (and thus glass-packaging production in Switzerland) ceases in the future. The substitution of products based on raw materials other than Swiss cullet is the main responsible for change in environmental and economic impacts. Hence, an eco-efficiency maximizing policy should consider the products of disposal schemes. The combination of scenario analysis and eco-efficiency assessment as presented in this paper can be applied to other contexts (i.e., countries, waste fractions).  相似文献   
3.
河南省畜禽粪便污染及耕地负荷时空变化特征分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
为了解河南省畜禽养殖废弃物对环境污染的影响,根据河南省2006年~2012年统计数据,以各地级市为单位,分析了2006年~2012年河南省主要畜禽粪便产生总量及养分总量、单位耕地面积粪便负荷量及其污染风险预警。结果表明:河南省畜禽粪便产生总量约为28627万吨,猪粪和牛粪占粪便总量的84.5%以上,畜禽粪便还田后,粪便中的养分含量将对该省的水环境造成污染;河南省耕地畜禽粪便负荷预警级别在Ⅰ级与Ⅳ级之间,风险较高的地市主要集中在漯河、鹤壁等市,尤其是鹤壁市,负荷量最高达59t/hm2。因此,这些地级市应该加强畜禽粪便的风险管理和综合治理工作。  相似文献   
4.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs.  相似文献   
5.
The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.  相似文献   
6.
Fenton process, as a pretreatment method, was found to be effective in the primary treatment of mature/medium landfill leachate. However, the main problem of the process is the large amount of produced sludge that requires an accurate feasibility evaluation for operational applications. In this study, the response surface methodology was applied for the modeling and optimization of Fenton process in three target responses, (1) overall COD removal, (2) sludge to iron ratio (SIR) and (3) organics removal to sludge ratio (ORSR), where the latter two were new self-defined responses for prediction of sludge generation and applicability assessment of the process, respectively. The effective variables included the initial pH, [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio and Fe2+ dosage. According to the statistical analysis, all the proposed models were adequate (with adjusted R2 of 0.9116–0.9512) and had considerable predictive capability (with prediction R2 up to 0.9092 and appropriate adequate precision). It was found that all the variables had significant effects on the responses, specifically by their observed role in dominant oxidation mechanism. The optimum operational conditions obtained by overlay plot, were found to be initial pH of 5.7, [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio of 17.72 and [Fe2+] of 195 mM, which led to 69% COD removal, 2.4 (l sludge/consumed mole Fe2+) of SIR and 16.5 (gCOD removed/l produced sludge) for ORSR in verification test, in accordance with models-predicted values. Finally, it was observed that [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio and Fe2+ dosage had significant influence on COD removal, while Fe2+ dosage and [H2O2]/[Fe2+] ratio had remarkable effects on SIR and ORSR responses, respectively.  相似文献   
7.
In this study, an integrated “Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE)” and maintenance systems are presented. Multivariate analysis is used for continuous performance assessment and improvement of these systems. The two subjects of “Maintenance System” and “HSE” have been individually investigated several times in different studies. However, few studies have been done to integrate these two systems and provide an integrated system for their implementation. This study evaluates current maintenance and HSE systems of a Gas Transmission Unit by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Moreover, decision making units (DMUs) are examined and ranked. Employees are considered as DMUs. This is done through investigating and measuring their efficiencies and identifying the inefficient and less-efficient units. Since an increase in the number of inputs does not lead to an increase in the number of outputs with the same scale, an output-oriented DEA with a Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) is used. The Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is also used in this research to decrease uncertainty existing in qualitative indicators and human error. Finally, suggestions are given to improve those DMUs. The managers and employees of the gas transmission unit constitute the statistical population of the study. To achieve the objectives of this study, standard questionnaires with respect to HSE and Maintenance system are completed by operators. The proposed approach would help policy makers and top managers of Gas Transmission Company to have a more comprehensive and thorough understanding the working conditions with respect to the maintenance and HSE features.  相似文献   
8.
Safety-related structures are designed to provide a safe environment for the occupants and equipment during and after earthquakes. This is due to the fact that any damage imposed to the systems might lead to catastrophic consequences. Seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) is a systematic approach for the quantification of the seismic risk. One of the crucial steps in this assessment is to determine the seismic capacity of the structures by fragility method. After a review of available methodologies, this article analyzes the seismic fragility for a typical power plant containment considering the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI). The structure and underneath soil profile are analyzed as a unified model by the subtraction method. Two steps are considered for the assessment of seismic response: In the first step, a fixed-base hypothesis framework is implemented to the computational problem. The second step covers computations taking into account the SSI effects. Using the results of seismic response analysis and safety factor method, seismic fragility of the structure is computed and related fragility curves are developed. Finally, by comparing the fragility curves, the effects of SSI are quantified on the overall seismic risk.  相似文献   
9.
Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives.  相似文献   
10.
How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency’s knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency’s knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks.  相似文献   
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