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We developed a new microsome purification method and used the Omura and Sato method to measure the total content of cytochrome (Cyt) P450 in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) microsomes. In method development, two different pretreatments, i.e. solubilization or manual separation were used to purify worm microsomes. Solubilization was more effective than manual separation and difference spectra showed a peak at 450 +/- 1 nm in microsomes received solubilization pretreatment. We conducted a 48 h contact test by exposing worms on pyrene (Py) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) spiked filter paper. A dose-response relationship was established between total P450 content and the concentration of Py or BaP ranging from 10(-6) mg mL(-1) to 10(-2) mg mL(-1). Results show that total Cyt P450 content in earthworms is a promising biomarker for diagnosing PAHs exposure at sublethal dose ranges.  相似文献
2.
The degradation, sorption, transportation and material balance of cationic surfactants discharged from domestic waste into river water was studied. Ion-pair solid-phase extraction behavior showed that the sorption of cationic surfactants as an ion-pair with anionic surfactant onto river sediment was so strong that little cationic surfactant was found in the bulk water. Cationic surfactant was found in river sediment at more than 500 times higher concentration than that in the bulk water. The degradation of the cationic surfactant was very slow in river water and much slower in the sediment. A material balance of cationic surfactant was estimated for a river running through Toyama City by measuring the flow rate and the concentration of cationic surfactant in the water at several points. It was found that more than 30% of cationic surfactant introduced to the river was lost during the river running through ca. 3 km in 3 h. This reduction probably comes from a quick transfer of the cationic surfactant from river water to sediment and water weed by means of adsorption or precipitation with suspending solids.  相似文献
3.
Genotoxicity potential of soils taken from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites was assessed using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay. Twenty five soils were tested, of which 8 were uncontaminated soils and taken as the control to examine the influence of soil properties; 6 soils were obtained from paddy rice fields with a history of long-term wastewater irrigation; 6 soils were obtained from bioremediation sites to examine effects of bioremediation; and 5 PAH-contaminated soils were used to examine methodological effects between direct soil exposure and exposure to aqueous soil extracts on micronuclei (MN) frequency ( per thousand) in the V. faba root tips. Results indicate that soil properties had no significant influences on MN frequencies (p > 0.05) when soil pH varied between 3.4 to 7.6 and organic carbon between 0.4% and 18.6%. The MN frequency measured in these control soils ranged from 1.6 per thousand to 5.8 per thousand. MN frequencies in soils from wastewater irrigation areas showed 2- to 48-fold increase as compared with the control. Soils from bioremediation sites showed a mixed picture: MN frequencies in some soils decreased after bioremediation, possibly due to detoxification; whereas in other cases remediated soils induced higher MN frequencies, suggesting that genotoxic substances might be produced during bioremediation. Exposure to aqueous soil extracts gave a higher MN frequency than direct exposure in 3 soils. However, the opposite was observed in the other two soils, suggesting that both exposure routes should be tested in case of negative results from one route. Data obtained from this study indicate that the MN assay is a sensitive assay suitable for evaluating genotoxicity of soils.  相似文献
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