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排序方式: 共有3905条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
The rapid increase of phosphorus (P) use in farming has raised concerns regarding its conservation and environmental impact. Increasing the P use efficiency (PUE) is an approach to mitigating these adverse impacts. In this study, we applied substance flow analysis (SFA) to establish a life-cycle P use efficiency model to determine the life-cycle PUE of the farming system used in Anhui Province in 2011, which is typical of the agriculture practiced in central China. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of five subsystems were identified and quantified: crop farming, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural living, and urban living. The three largest P flows were found in the crop farming and livestock breeding subsystems; it can therefore be concluded that these subsystems have substantial impacts on the entire farming system. In contrast, the PUEs of crop farming, rural consumption, and livestock breeding subsystems presented the three lowest PUEs (58.79%, 71.75%, and 76.65%, respectively). These results were also consistent with the finding that the greatest P losses occurred in crop farming and livestock breeding. Consequently, the study proposes that great potential exists for increasing PUEs in the farming system of Anhui, and several of the most promising measures could be combined for improving PUEs. Finally, the study assesses data quality and presents a sensitivity analysis for use in interpreting the results. The study also shows that improving PUE and decreasing P losses in farming systems through improved nutrient management must be considered an important issue, and this study represents valuable experience in resource conservation and agricultural development in China.  相似文献   
2.
The formulation and scale-up of batch processes is one of the major challenges in the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms and at the same time a significant resource demanding process which is generally overlooked in environmental sustainability assessments. First, this paper proposes general trends in the experience curve of cumulative resource consumption of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing of PREZISTA® 800 mg through wet granulation (WG) at four consecutive scales in both R&D and manufacturing environments (resp. WG1 = 1 kg/h, WG5 = 5 kg/h, WG30 = 30 kg/h and WG240 = 240 kg/h). Second, the authors aim at evaluating the environmental impact from a life cycle perspective of a daily consumption of PREZISTA® 2× 400 mg tablets versus the bioequivalent PREZISTA® 800 mg tablet which was launched to enhance patient compliance. Environmental sustainability assessment was conducted at three different system boundaries, which enables identification, localization and eventually reduction of burdens, in this case natural resource extraction. Exergy Analysis (EA) was used at process level (α) and plant level (β) while a cradle-to-gate Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA) was conducted at the overall industrial level (γ) by means of the CEENE method (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment). Life cycle stages taken into account are Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) production, Drug Product (DP) production and Packaging. At process level (α), the total resource extraction for the manufacturing of one daily dose of PREZISTA® (800 mg tablet) amounted up to 0.44 MJex at the smallest scale (WG1) while this amount proved to be reduced by 58%, 79% and 83% at WG5, WG30 and WG240 respectively. Expanding the boundaries to the overall industrial level (γ) reveals that the main resource demand is at the production of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API), excipients, packaging materials and cleaning media used in DP production. At the largest scale (WG240) the use of cleaning media during DP production contributes considerably less to the total resource extraction. Overall, the effect of scale-up and learning on resource consumption during DP production showed to possess a power-law experience curve y = 2.40 * x−0.57 when shifting from WG1 (smallest lab scale) to WG240 (industrial manufacturing). Tablet dosage (2× 400 mg versus 1× 800 mg) did not significantly affect the absolute environmental burden. However, the relative contribution of resource categories did change due to the different production technology. It could be concluded that in meeting social and economic demands by launching the PREZISTA® 800 mg tablet, no trade-off in environmental burden occurred. On the long term, future research should strive to take into account R&D processes and all services related to pipeline activities taking place prior to market launch and eventually to allocate impacts to the final product.  相似文献   
3.
EU's long-term objective is to become a recycling and resource effective society, where waste is utilized as a resource and waste generation is prevented. A system dynamics model was developed to analyze the policy mechanisms that promote packaging material efficiency in products through increased recycling rates. The model includes economic incentives such as packaging and landfill taxes combined with market mechanisms, behavioral aspects and ecological considerations in terms of material efficiency (the packaging material per product unit, recycled fraction in products). The paper presents the results of application of various policy instruments for increasing packaging material efficiency and recovery rate and reducing landfilled fraction. The results show that a packaging tax is an effective policy instrument for increasing the material efficiency. It ensures the decrease of the total consumption of materials and subsequent waste generation. The tax helps to counteract a rebound effect, which, as identified by the analysis, can be caused by reduced material costs due to eco-design. The model is applied to the case of Latvia. Yet, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to waste management systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze policy mechanisms in other countries.  相似文献   
4.
Increased soil erosion on sloped land has become a significant environmental concern in China that has been attributed to human activities such as deforestation, over-cultivation, and over-grazing of livestock. In order to reduce soil erosion on sloped lands, the Chinese government has responded by implementing large-scale, ecological rehabilitation programs, including the "Grain for Green" reforestation project. This program involves financial incentives to transition farmers into other economic activities with the goal of reducing ecological pressures and degradation. Because of the scope and potential impacts from these programs, detailed research is needed to understand their social and ecological effects. This paper reports on research conducted in Tianquan County, Sichuan Province, and Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province, that evaluates the effects of the program upon local economies and household livelihood systems. The paper argues that the successful conversion of farmland under "Grain for Green" depends upon local government involvement, local economic development, and funding for local projects. Without economic development within rural economies, we conclude that farmers will remain dependent upon continued subsidy assistance to meet the policy's ambitious environmental restrictions, thereby undermining the program's long-term sustainability.  相似文献   
5.
文章通过对创建绿色作业队的认识与实践,提出:创建绿色作业必须依靠科技转变方式;整体规划,典型带动;持续改进,重点落实。从而形成创建绿色作业的长效机制。  相似文献   
6.
以正丙醇、氯气和硫脲合成了2-氨基-5-甲基噻唑,将上述产物作为碱组分,与苯甲醛和苯乙酮反应得到曼尼希碱,最后采用溴代十二烷作为季铵化试剂,制得目标产物溴代2-氨基(1,4-二苯基-3-氧代丁基)-5-甲基噻唑铵(QADT)。静态失重法表明,QADT缓蚀效果显著。当温度为50℃,QADT的用量在200 mg/L时,缓蚀率达到95%以上。  相似文献   
7.
稠油热采注汽锅炉节能减排措施实践   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
提高注汽锅炉系统热率是节能降耗、降本增效的主要挖潜方向。为此开展了一系列节能技术的研究,先后开展了热管空气换热器、高温辐射涂料的节能、硬度在线检测、对流段翅片管硬垢清洗技术的推广应用,通过这些技术的实施应用,取得一定的社会效益和经济效益。  相似文献   
8.
沙漠油田开发生态环境保护的实践   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
文章阐述了地处沙漠腹地的石西油田在开发建设过程中开展环境保护工作的具体做法,从加强组织领导、制定并不断完善环保规章制度、加大科技投入等方面分析总结了在沙漠油田中开展环境保护的管理经验,通过加强井场作业、油气集输、建设用地管理、植物种植管理方面的措施,阐述了在沙漠油田开发建设中创建绿色油气田活动所取得的成绩。  相似文献   
9.
有冰条件下撇油器回收溢油速率试验研究*   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为评价一种进口多功能撇油器应对渤海冬季溢油的能力,试验分别对刷式、盘式、鼓式三种撇油头在无冰和有冰(冰密集度约5成)条件下进行收油速率测试。试验以100 L油品为基数,测出在各种组合条件下回收油品所需要的时间,并把鼓式撇油头在有冰条件下的泵速提高,再进行试验。结果发现三种撇油方式的回收速率不仅与撇油头类型有关,同时也取决于是否有冰;在有冰条件下,三种撇油头收油效果都受到影响,其中盘式撇油器受影响最大,无法回收溢油;在有冰条件下加大鼓式撇油头泵速会提高总回收速率,但含水率同时提高;对凝固原油,撇油器无能为力。试验结果对正确评估三种类型的撇油头在两种情况下的收油效果和相关单位应具备的清除溢油能力,以及今后引进设备提高应急能力将起到借鉴作用。  相似文献   
10.
北京建成区道路绿化空间结构和行道树健康状况   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
采用实地普查测量方法,定量研究了北京建成区188条道路行道树的树种结构、径级分布、立木层次和健康状况。结果表明,国槐(Sophora japonica)、毛白杨(Populus alba)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)是建成区主要行道树种,使用量分别占研究区树木总株数的54.7%、13.7%和7.4%。建成区树木...  相似文献   
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