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1.
This paper develops a GIS-based integrated approach to risk assessment in natural hazards, with reference to bushfires. The challenges for undertaking this approach have three components: data integration, risk assessment tasks, and risk decision-making. First, data integration in GIS is a fundamental step for subsequent risk assessment tasks and risk decision-making. A series of spatial data integration issues within GIS such as geographical scales and data models are addressed. Particularly, the integration of both physical environmental data and socioeconomic data is examined with an example linking remotely sensed data and areal census data in GIS. Second, specific risk assessment tasks, such as hazard behavior simulation and vulnerability assessment, should be undertaken in order to understand complex hazard risks and provide support for risk decision-making. For risk assessment tasks involving heterogeneous data sources, the selection of spatial analysis units is important. Third, risk decision-making concerns spatial preferences and/or patterns, and a multicriteria evaluation (MCE)-GIS typology for risk decision-making is presented that incorporates three perspectives: spatial data types, data models, and methods development. Both conventional MCE methods and artificial intelligence-based methods with GIS are identified to facilitate spatial risk decision-making in a rational and interpretable way. Finally, the paper concludes that the integrated approach can be used to assist risk management of natural hazards, in theory and in practice.  相似文献
2.
An endeavor to feel the pulse of a coast devastated by a powerful oceanographic event is made. Results of field investigations along Tamil Nadu seaside revealed that the tsunami of December 2004 demolished dwellings within strips ranging from 6 to 132m (average width, 41m) from the dune, and flooded up to 862m (average, 247m) from the shore. The event damaged sand dunes, ripped dune vegetation, created new water bodies and shattered high value assets. Comparatively, casuarina forests performed remarkably. Uprooting of trees was exclusively restricted to a frontal strip ranging from 5 to 25m (average width, 14m) nearest to the shore where the maximum wave run-up was 6.5m above sea level. Sand dunes in general, and casuarina forests in particular, posses an innate capacity to dissipate powerful waves. This inference is supported by (a) negligible over wash along belts characterized by high dune complexes, (b) intact villages shielded by dense forests as well as sand dunes, and (c) maximum destruction of open beach front influenced by intense human activity. In this context, the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 offers sufficient scientific validity to be endorsed. However, post-tsunami ecosystem management initiatives lack a scientific basis. Therefore, a coastal hazards policy, that considers adaptation, dune restoration and forested buffer zones, is a sustainable long-term option for Indian coasts.  相似文献
3.
本文通过对四川省自然灾害分布规律的系统分析,提出其区划的原则和要求,并引入模糊聚类的方法,对四川省自然灾害进行分区划片,目的是为区域规划提供减灾的重点方向。  相似文献
4.
A major flood control initiative has been launched in Bangladesh under the coordination of the World Bank. The bank's five-year Action Plan is intended to initiate a long-term investment program, the specifics of which remain to be determined. Long-term proposals under consideration include the construction of massive embankments along the great rivers of the Bangladesh delta. The wisdom of such a “structural solution” to Bangladesh's flood problems can be questioned on economic, environmental, and technical grounds. Regrettably, the decision-making process has not encouraged wide debate on these questions.  相似文献
5.
This essay evaluates the historical development and current background of human-environment relationships in Italy. The Italian landscape consists of very varied terrain, and periodically suffers from all kinds of natural hazard, especially earthquakes, landslides, floods, and accelerated soil erosion. Some measure of environmental conservation was achieved by the Etruscans and Romans, but the Classical period also marked the beginning of serious lowland waterlogging, malarial infestation, upland soil erosion, and deforestation, which all increased during the Middle Ages. From the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a diffusion of planned landscapes and carefully managed estates; but by the 20th century, many rural areas could not support growing populations and much land was in need of improvement. Underdevelopment and latifundium agriculture increased the vulnerability to environmental hazards of the Mezzogiorno (Italian South), while the subsequent disappearance of the peasant culture seems not to have led to greatly improved conservation or land management. Poorly farmed or managed landscapes and poorly maintained historic towns have undergone some virtually irreversible degradation, especially with respect to landslides and earthquake damage. Elsewhere in Italy, unchecked urbanization, weak planning laws, and their inadequate enforcement have helped both to reduce environmental quality, by overdevelopment of valued landscapes, and to increase natural disaster vulnerability, by encouraging occupance of natural hazard zones. Although there are signs that the government is beginning to respond to the cumulative effect of environmental degradation, the measures are insufficient to reverse the overall trend toward decadence that characterizes human-land relationships in Italy.  相似文献
6.
This article examines the likely impacts of the United States' new federalism on natural hazard land use management in Colorado. Flood and avalanche hazard programs are the focus of the study Both short- and long-term effects of changes in funding are discussed, and the conclusions summarize probable positive and negative program impacts for the state. These results may help researchers and state authorities mitigate similar effects in their states prior to the enactment of new federalism.  相似文献
7.
This empirical paper aims at examining individuals’ risk perception in the context of an environmental disaster. Risk is defined as probability of dying in a snow avalanche. Risk perception is analyzed from two different perspectives: (i) individuals’ estimate of the average avalanche risk and (ii) the perceived personal avalanche risk. The perception of personal risk is summarized in an ordered categorical variable, average risk perception is captured by a measurement previously used in risk communication that results in a continuous variable. The variation in risk perception observed is examined by using individual leisure activities (skiing) and the timing of the survey (fall vs. winter) as proxies for frequency, familiarity, controllability, voluntariness, and beneficiary of risk exposure and by including several individual specific characteristics such as age, gender, education, income. The results show that risk as well as individual specific characteristics are significant determinants of participants’ perception of risk but their relevance differs depending on whether the focus is on perception of average risk or of personal risk.  相似文献
8.
This paper examines the extent to which 20 municipalities in the Greater Vancouver region of British Columbia have included provisions in their community plans for reducing natural hazard risk and vulnerability. Findings show that the plans are generally lacking in hazard related factual information, goals, and policies, and in mechanisms to promote plan implementation. The plans also do not compare favorably to municipal hazard mitigation plans in the United States. The authors provide recommendations for provincial/state and municipal governments with respect to improving the quality of municipal plans and their capacity to enhance public safety.  相似文献
9.
Urban areas are becoming increasingly subject to and vulnerable to water‐related natural disasters. Urban areas are a kind of socio‐ecological system wherein the human development dynamics co‐evolve with the natural dynamics. Most of the literature is focused on the impact of natural disasters on human development; we evaluate the impacts of human development on natural disasters and present an analysis of this phenomenon in the context of megacities. The approach is exploratory and begins with the construction of a database on the 595 existing megacities in the world. Multifactor analysis is then used to determine the main characteristics of these megacities. Finally, three structural components (maturity, anthropization and centrality) are identified and then correlated with data on water‐related hazards, distinguishing groups of cities according to their structure and factors of vulnerability to water‐related risks.  相似文献
10.
Research suggests that characteristics of local government land-use planners help determine the priority that local communities place on flood hazard mitigation. However, research has not examined the significance of land-use planners' values and role orientations for flood hazard mitigation. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the influence that land-use planners' values and role orientations have on flood hazard mitigation in a national sample of New Urbanist development projects. Findings indicate that land-use planners' values and role orientations have significant implications for flood hazard mitigation in these projects. The paper recommends that local governments adopt a land-use planning approach to flood hazard mitigation that relies on land-use planners to help direct development away from hazardous portions of development sites.  相似文献
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