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1.
玄武湖引水工程的环境效益分析   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
从现有引水工程环境实施效果入手,通过小试试验,响应模型计算及投资效益分析,提出了引水工程的改进方案。  相似文献
2.
Microbiological characteristics in a zero-valent iron reactive barrier   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Zero-valent iron (Fe0)-based permeable reactive barriertreatment has been generating great interest for passivegroundwater remediation, yet few studies have paid particularattention to the microbial activity and characteristics withinand in the vicinity of the Fe0-barrier matrix. The presentstudy was undertaken to evaluate the microbial population andcommunity composition in the reducing zone of influence byFe0 corrosion in the barrier at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plantsite. Both phospholipid fatty acids and DNA analyses were usedto determine the total microbial population and microbialfunctional groups, including sulfate-reducing bacteria,denitrifying bacteria, and methanogens, in groundwater andsoil/iron core samples. A diverse microbial community wasidentified in the strongly reducing Fe0 environment despitea relatively high pH condition within the Fe0 barrier (up topH 10). In comparison with those found in the backgroundsoil/groundwater samples, the enhanced microbial populationranged from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude and appeared to increase from upgradient of the barrier to downgradient soil. Inaddition, microbial community composition appeared to change overtime, and the bacterial types of microorganismsincreased consistently as the barrier aged. DNA analysisindicated the presence of sulfate-reducing and denitrifyingbacteria in the barrier and its surrounding soil. However, theactivity of methanogens was found to be relatively low,presumably as a result of the competition by sulfate/metal-reducing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria because of the unlimited availability of sulfate and nitrate in the site groundwater. Results of this study provide evidenceof a diverse microbial population within and in the vicinity ofthe iron barrier, although the important roles of microbial activity, either beneficially or detrimentally, on the longevityand enduring efficiency of the Fe0 barriers are yet to be evaluated.  相似文献
3.
遥感在生态与环境监测中的主要应用领域   总被引:5,自引:2,他引:3  
遥感是一种以物理手段、数学方法和地学分析为基础的综合应用技术 ,具有宏观、综合、动态和快速的特点。在解决宏观尺度的环境问题时 ,卫星遥感可重复获取多种空间、不同时相和不同波谱分辨率的地球信息 ,是适宜于调查和研究这些主题的唯一的、最有效的工具。本文通过对遥感在环境与生态监测的主要应用领域进行概要阐述 ,旨在抛砖引玉 ,推动遥感在环境与生态监测中的广泛应用。  相似文献
4.
于桥水库浮游植物群落特征   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
于桥水库是天津市惟一饮用水水源地,为了研究该水库浮游植物群落特征,于2012年春、夏、秋对于桥水库浮游植物进行了监测分析。结果表明:该水库共鉴定出绿藻(Chlorophyta)、蓝藻(Cyanophyta)、硅藻(Diatoms)、裸藻(Euglenophyta)、甲藻(Pyrrophyta)、隐藻(Cryptophyta)和黄藻(Xanthophyta) 7门114 种,群落组成以绿藻-硅藻门为主;浮游植物细胞密度具有明显的季节变化规律,表现为春季较低,夏季急剧增长,到了秋季又有所回落。优势种对于桥水库水质的评价结果表明,春季为中营养水体,夏季为富营养化水体,秋季为中富营养水体。春、夏、秋季于桥水库香农-韦弗多样性指数平均值分别为3.22、2.51和3.17,说明2012年于桥水库春季、秋季为贫营养水体,夏季为中营养水体,且有暴发水华的危险。  相似文献
5.
This paper takes the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) that transfers water from the Bosten Lake, to Daxihaizi Reservoir, and finally to the Taitema Lake as a case study to analyze the dynamic change of the groundwater depth, the vegetation responses to the elevation of the groundwater depth as well as the relationship between the groundwater depth and the natural vegetation. The results from many years’ monitoring in field indicate: (1) the groundwater depth has been elevating gradually with the increase in the times of watering and the elevation range has been expanding continuously in the lower reaches of Tarim River. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation has a favorable response to the elevation of the groundwater depth. The change of the natural vegetation has accordance with that of the groundwater depth. Such facts not only show that groundwater is a key factor to the growth of the native vegetation but also prove it is feasible that the degraded ecosystem can be restored and protected by the EWCP; (2) the results of analysis of the spatial-temporal response of the natural vegetation to watering reveals that the beneficial influence of the EWCP on the ecosystem in the lower Tarim River is a long-term process; (3) in terms of the function and structure of ecosystem after watering in the lower reaches of Tarim River, the EWCP does not still reach the goal of ecological restoration at a large spatial scale at present. Based on such monitoring results, some countermeasures and suggestions for the future restoration strategy are proposed so as to provide a theoretical basis for restoring and protecting the ecosystem in Tarim River, and meanwhile it can also provide some scientific references for implementing the similar ecological projects in other areas.  相似文献
6.
Rapid Assessment of Plant Diversity Patterns: A Methodology for Landscapes   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
We present a rapid, cost-efficient methodology to link plantdiversity surveys from plots to landscapes using: (1) unbiasedsite selection based on remotely sensed information; (2) multi-scale field techniques to assess plant diversity; (3)mathematical models (species-area curves) to estimate thenumber of species in larger areas corrected for within-typeheterogeneity; and (4) mathematical techniques to estimatetotal species richness and patterns of plant diversity in alandscape. We demonstrate the methodology in a 754 ha studyarea in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A.,using four 0.025 ha and twenty-one 0.1 ha multi-scalevegetation plots. We recorded 330 plant species (1/3 thenumber of plants recorded in the 1074 km2 Park) in the2.2 ha area within the plots: this represents a samplingintensity of 0.29% of the 754 ha study site. We estimated 552plant species, about half the plant species recorded in the Park,in just 0.7% of the Parks area. We show how this rapid,cost-efficient methodology: (1) produces a rich informationbase on the patterns of native plant diversity and thedistribution of non-native plant species and keystoneecosystems; and (2) can be easily adapted for other nationaland state parks, national forests, wildlife refuges, and nature reserves.  相似文献
7.
淮河流域河南段水生植物多样性评价及其影响因素分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过对淮河流域河南段开展野外调查及室内监测,分析河流水生植物类群组成及优势物种,从多样性、丰富度、优势度、均匀度4个方面对水生植物进行健康评价,采用CCA分析法探讨影响水生植物的关键环境因素。结果表明,淮河流域河南段共有水生植物38种,隶属于25科33属,分布广泛的优势种为芦苇、水花生、金鱼藻、轮叶黑藻、水蓼、水鳖、篦齿眼子菜。针对健康评价结果,淮河流域河南段水生植物呈现病态到健康状态。分析表明河流生态系统遭受破坏,生态系统呈现不稳定状况,主要原因为水质污染及人为活动干扰强烈。根据水生植物分布与水环境因子CCA响应关系研究,影响水生植物的主要因子为TP、COD、pH、电导率、氨氮。  相似文献
8.
贵州三水库冬季浮游生物分布及影响因子分析   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
为揭示喀斯特地区深水水库冬季的浮游生物群落结构及其影响因子,于2010年2月对贵州红枫湖、百花湖和阿哈水库进行采样分析。共鉴定出红枫湖、百花湖和阿哈水库的浮游植物分别为66、70、60种,浮游植物丰度范围分别为0.34×106~2.25×106、3.03×106~12.72×106、5.3×106~13.3×106 cells/L,后生浮游动物分别为22、16、24种,丰度变化范围分别为1.1~36.5、7.3~408、27~135 ind/L。Jaccard相似系数显示红枫湖/百花湖(0.381)>百花湖/阿哈水库(0.371)>红枫湖/阿哈水库(0.274)。典范对应分析(CCA)显示3个水库冬季的浮游植物的分布主要受透明度、温度、喜冷中镖水蚤、右突新镖水蚤、pH、舞跃无柄轮虫的影响,后生浮游动物的分布主要受透明度、温度、DO、沼泽颤藻、单角盘星藻具孔变种、TN和颗粒直连藻极狭变种螺旋变形的影响。  相似文献
9.
2009年4月用D形网半定量采样法调查秦淮河上游25个点位的大型底栖无脊椎动物群落多样性,共获得63个大型底栖无脊椎动物分类单元;其中,水生昆虫5目12科30属,软体动物9科11属19种,寡毛纲2科7属9种。结果表明,生物指数(Biotic Index,BI)比Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的评价结果更接近实际情况,BI与ρ(TN)(r=0.44,p〈0.05)和ρ(NH3-N)(r=0.40,p〈0.05)之间显著相关,Shannon-Wiene多样性指数与ρ(TN)(r=-0.19,p〉0.05)和ρ(NH3-N)(r=0.44,p〉0.05)无显著性相关。生物评价表明秦淮河上游水质受到严重污染,句容地区的水质要优于南京。  相似文献
10.
Knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is essential to conservation and forest managers in order to identify high priority areas such as vulnerable species and habitats, and designate areas for reserves, refuges and other protected areas. A reliable map of the diversity of plant species over the landscape is an invaluable tool for such purposes. In this study, the number of species, the exponent Shannon and the reciprocal Simpson indices, calculated from 141 quadrat sites sampled in a tropical forest were used to compare the performance of several spatial interpolation techniques used to prepare a map of plant diversity, starting from sample (point) data over the landscape. Means of mapped classes, inverse distance functions, kriging and co-kriging, both, applied over the entire studied landscape and also applied within vegetation classes, were the procedures compared. Significant differences in plant diversity indices between classes demonstrated the usefulness of boundaries between vegetation types, mapped through satellite image classification, in stratifying the variability of plant diversity over the landscape. These mapped classes, improved the accuracy of the interpolation methods when they were used as prior information for stratification of the area. Spatial interpolation by co-kriging performed among the poorest interpolators due to the poor correlation between the plant diversity variables and vegetation indices computed by remote sensing and used as covariables. This indicated that the latter are not suitable covariates of plant diversity indices. Finally, a within-class kriging interpolator yielded the most accurate estimates of plant diversity values. This interpolator not only provided the most accurate estimates by accounting for the indices' intra-class variability, but also provided additional useful interpretations of the structure of spatial variability of diversity values through the interpretation of their semi-variograms. This additional role was found very useful in aiding decisions in conservation planning.  相似文献
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