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1.
A thorough understanding of chemical composition, particle pH, and pollutant emissions is essential to address the climate and human health effects of atmospheric particles. In this study, we used a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer(HR-ToF-AMS)and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer(SMPS) to characterize the composition of submicron particles. Moreover, we applied the ISORROPIA-II model to analyze the particle acidity effect on the compositional characterization of submicron ...  相似文献   
2.
Luoyang is a typical heavy industrial city in China, with a coal-dominated energy structure and serious air pollution. Following the implementation of the clean air actions, the physicochemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 have changed. A comprehensive study of PM2.5 was conducted from October 16, 2019 to January 23, 2020 to evaluate the effectiveness of previous control measures and further to provide theory basis for more effective policies in the future. Results showed that the aerosol pollution in Luoyang in autumn and winter is still serious with the average concentration of 91.1 μg/m3, although a large reduction (46.9%) since 2014. With the contribution of nitrate increased from 12.5% to 25.1% and sulfate decreased from 16.7% to 11.2%, aerosol pollution has changed from sulfate-dominate to nitrate-dominate. High NO3/SO42− ratio and the increasing of NO3/SO42− ratio with the aggravation of pollution indicating vehicle exhaust playing an increasingly important role in PM2.5 pollution in Luoyang, especially in the haze processes. Secondary inorganic ions contributed significantly to the enhancement of PM2.5 during the pollution period. The high value of Cl/Na+ and EC concentration indicate coal combustion in Luoyang is still serious. The top three contributor sources were secondary inorganic aerosols (33.3%), coal combustion (13.6%), and industrial emissions (13.4%). Close-range transport from the western and northeastern directions were more important factors in air pollution in Luoyang during the sampling period. It is necessary to strengthen the control of coal combustion and reduce vehicle emissions in future policies.  相似文献   
3.
We analyzed whether decision‐making triggers increase accountability of adaptive‐management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive‐management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in‐depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive‐management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive‐management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. Detonadores de la Toma de Decisiones en el Manejo Adaptativo  相似文献   
4.
西安市大气棕碳污染特性及发色团种类   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
陈前  陈庆彩 《环境科学》2021,42(3):1236-1244
为探究西安市大气棕碳(BrC)的光学特性及化学组成,利用大气颗粒物采样器和吸附剂同时采集了颗粒相和气相大气样品,并运用紫外-可见分光光度计和三维荧光光度计测定了样品中BrC的吸光和荧光特性,基于平行因子分析(PARAFAC)法解析三维荧光光谱得到BrC的种类和组成信息.结果表明,在波长为365 nm时,颗粒相和气相BrC的吸光度分别为(13.8±7.9)Mm-1和(8.0±3.1)Mm-1,两者占比分别为63%和37%.本研究并未发现气相和颗粒相BrC吸光度之间有显著的相关性.PARAFAC结果表明,西安市大气BrC含有类腐殖质发色团、类酚类发色团和类蛋白发色团,而它们分别在气相和颗粒相BrC中的占比是不同的,类腐殖质发色团和类蛋白发色团在颗粒相中分布较多,分别为41%和36%,而气相中主要包含酚类发色团,其占比为78%.本研究结果揭示了气相BrC也可能是贡献大气正辐射强迫的重要因子,以及参与大气光化学反应的重要大气组分,将来的研究需要给予足够重视和关注.  相似文献   
5.
北京城市河流河水和沉积物中微塑料的组成与分布   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
胡嘉敏  左剑恶  李頔  谢珍雯  陈磊 《环境科学》2021,42(11):5275-5283
微塑料已经被证实广泛存在于自然环境中,对生物和人类造成潜在危害,进行微塑料的赋存调研有助于了解城市河流河水和沉积物中微塑料的污染现状.以北京市北运河和怀河作为研究区域,共布设了8个水样点位和3个沉积物点位,研究并对比了北运河河水和沉积物以及怀河河水中微塑料丰度、粒径、颜色、形状和种类的组成与分布特征.结果表明,北运河河水中的微塑料丰度为(1941±201)~(8155±1781) n ·m-3(n表示微塑料个数),平均丰度为4160 n ·m-3;北运河沉积物中的微塑料丰度为(120±11)~(268±31) n ·kg-1.怀河河水中的微塑料污染程度低于北运河河水,微塑料的平均丰度为2357 n ·m-3.北运河上游河水和沉积物中微塑料的丰度高于下游,具有较明显的空间分布特征;怀河河水中的微塑料分布总体上无明显差异,但相距较远的两点位中微塑料的丰度之间具有显著差异.粒径、颜色和形状的分类统计结果显示,所有点位中微塑料的主要粒径区间为<300 μm;白色/透明微塑料(50.75%~83.91%)最为常见;碎片状(50.00%~95.08%)和纤维状(3.86%~30.00%)是微塑料的主要形态.聚氨酯(polyurethane,PU)和乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯(ethylene vinyl acetate,EVA)是所有点位的主要微塑料种类.北运河河水和沉积物中的微塑料可能主要来源于城市建设和经济发展,怀河河水中的微塑料可能主要受到周边村庄和居民日常生活的影响.  相似文献   
6.
To evaluate the effectiveness of emission control regulations designed for reducing air pollution, chemically resolved PM2.5 data have been collected across Canada through the National Air Pollution Surveillance network in the past decade. 24-hr time integrated PM2.5 collected at seven urban and two rural sites during 2010-2016 were analyzed to characterize geographical and seasonal patterns and associated potential causes. Site-specific seven-year mean gravimetric PM2.5 mass concentrations ranged from 5.7 to 9.6 µg/m3. Seven-year mean concentrations of SO42?, NO3?, NH4+, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) were in the range of 0.68 to 1.6, 0.21 to 1.5, 0.27 to 0.71, 1.1 to 1.9, and 0.37 to 0.71 µg /m3, accounting for 10.8%-18.1%, 3.7%-16.7%, 4.7%-7.4%, 18.4%-21.0%, and 6.4%-10.6%, respectively, of gravimetric PM2.5 mass. PM2.5 and its five major chemical components showed higher concentrations in southeastern Canada and lower values in Atlantic Canada, with the seven-year mean ratios between the two regions being on the order of 1.7 for PM2.5 and 1.8-7.1 for its chemical components. When comparing the concentrations between urban and rural sites within the same region, those of SO42? and NH4+ were comparable, while those of NO3?, OC, and EC were around 20%, 40%-50%, and 70%-80%, respectively, higher at urban than rural sites, indicating the regional scale impacts of SO42? and NH4+ and effects of local sources on OC and EC. Monthly variations generally showed summertime peaks for SO42? and wintertime peaks for NO3?, but those of NH4+, OC, and EC exhibited different seasonality at different locations.  相似文献   
7.
Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms have drawn public attention because they threaten the safety of water resources and human health worldwide. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms outbreak in Lake Taihu in summer annually and vanish in other months. To find out the factors impacting the cyanobacterial blooms, the present study measured the physicochemical parameters of water and investigated the composition of microbial community using the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing in the months with or without bloom. The most interesting finding is that two major cyanobacteria, Planktothrix and Microcystis, dramatically alternated during a cyanobacterial bloom in 2016, which is less mentioned in previous studies. When the temperature of the water began increasing in July, Planktothrix appeared first and showed as a superior competitor for M. aeruginosa in NO3?-rich conditions. Microcystis became the dominant genus when the water temperature increased further in August. Laboratory experiments confirmed the influence of temperature and the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) form on the growth of Planktothrix and Microcystis in a co-culture system. Besides, species interactions between cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacterial microorganisms, especially the prokaryotes, also played a key role in the alteration of Planktothrix and Microcystis. The present study exhibited the alteration of two dominant cyanobacteria in the different bloom periods caused by the temperature, TDN forms as well as the species interactions. These results helped the better understanding of cyanobacterial blooms and the factors which contribute to them.  相似文献   
8.
郑州市民运会期间大气PM2.5改善效果评估   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
利用2019年8月5日至9月30日大气污染物和颗粒物组分在线数据,评估郑州市少数民族运动会空气质量管控效果.根据政府管控措施的实施时间,将研究时期分为管控前(8月5~24日)、管控中(8月25日至9月18日)和解除管控后(9月19~30日).相较管控前,管控中PM_(2.5)平均浓度增加2.3μg·m~(-3),解除管控后PM_(2.5)的浓度增加了11.7μg·m~(-3),解除管控后PM_(2.5)浓度增幅高于管控中,表明管控措施对颗粒物有显著的减排效果.从颗粒物组分来看,研究期间郑州市主要组分依次是有机物、硝酸根、铵根、硫酸根和地壳元素.相比于管控前,管控期间PM_(2.5)组分中有机物和硝酸根占比分别上升3.9%和0.9%,硫酸根、铵根和地壳元素的占比下降了1.1%、 1.9%和2.2%.利用正定矩阵因子分解法解析颗粒物来源,结果表明二次硫酸、二次硝酸、二次有机气溶胶、机动车源、工艺过程源、扬尘和燃煤是PM_(2.5)主要来源.管控对一次源中的扬尘、燃煤和工业效果显著,贡献比分别下降8.3%、 8.2%和8.1%;机动车贡献上升3.8%;二次有机气溶胶和二次硝酸占比上升.结果表明郑州市此次管控对二次前体物氮氧化物和VOCs的减排效果弱于对一次污染物的管控.  相似文献   
9.
通过小试滤柱模拟河岸过滤,结合荧光定量PCR和高通量测序等手段研究了河岸过滤对氨氮的削减效能和进水氨氮浓度对细菌与氨氧化微生物的影响.结果表明,低浓度(0.2 mg·L-1)氨氮未被削减,较高浓度(1.0 mg·L-1和2.0 mg·L-1)氨氮的削减率可达70%.进水处细菌丰度随氨氮浓度升高而增加,细菌群落组成随氨氮浓度升高发生规律性变化.出水处氨氧化古菌(Ammonia oxidizing archaea,AOA)丰度与氨氮浓度呈负相关,氨氧化细菌(Ammonia oxidizing bacteria,AOB)丰度与氨氮浓度无显著相关关系;进水处AOA-α多样性与氨氮浓度呈正相关,但AOB-α多样性与氨氮浓度呈负相关;进水处AOA群落组成受氨氮浓度影响,而进、出水处AOB群落组成均受氨氮浓度影响.可见,进水氨氮浓度会影响河岸过滤对氨氮的削减效能,还会影响细菌、氨氧化微生物的丰度及群落结构,AOB对氨氮浓度的变化比AOA更敏感.  相似文献   
10.
孙倩  吴宏亮  陈阜  康建宏 《环境科学》2020,41(10):4682-4689
为研究宁夏中部干旱带不同轮作模式下土壤养分及真菌群落组成的特征,以谷子轮作大豆(MRG)、轮作籽粒苋(MRA)、轮作藜麦(MRQ)及谷子连作(CK)为对象,测定了土壤养分含量,并利用Illumina MiSeq高通量测序平台测定了土壤真菌的ITS变异区序列.结果表明,不同轮作模式对土壤养分的影响存在差异.3种轮作模式下土壤pH和电导率均有所下降,土壤全氮、全钾、全磷和有机质含量均上升,OTUs数和α多样性指数均高于连作.真菌群落组成研究结果显示,子囊菌门(Ascomycota)为4种模式下的优势菌群.聚类分析显示MRA和MRG的真菌属组成最为相似,其次是MRQ,CK与3种轮作模式相差较大.相关性分析显示,土壤养分与几种优势真菌属呈显著相关性(P<0.05或P<0.01),土壤全氮、全钾、硝态氮和有机质含量是影响土壤真菌群落最主要的因子.主成分分析(PCA)表明,MRG轮作模式优于MRA和MRQ模式.综上所述,轮作提高了真菌群落多样性指数,改变了土壤真菌群落结构,改善了土壤肥力状况,其中以谷子与大豆轮作效果最佳,建议将谷豆轮作作为中部干旱带杂粮产业中主要的轮作模式之一进行推广.  相似文献   
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