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1.
浅谈我国水生生物监测技术规范的修订   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
根据全国实现生物监测基本任务以及有效服务于环境管理的需要,剖析了我国水生生物监测技术规范的局限性,提出调整和完善监测项目及指标,调整监测频率,改进监测方法等若干修订意见建议对一份样品或一个试验,同时测定包括分子、细胞、器官、个体、种群乃至生态系统水平的多项指标,特别应注意增加分子生态毒理学方面指标,以突出生物监测的早期预报作用。  相似文献
2.
浅谈我国水生生物监测技术规范的修订   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
根据全国实现生物监测基本任务以及有效服务于环境管理的需要,剖析了我国水生生物监测技术规范的局限性,提出调整和完善监测项目及指标,调整监测频率,改进监测方法等若干修订意见建议对一份样品或一个试验,同时测定包括分子、细胞、器官、个体、种群乃至生态系统水平的多项指标,特别应注意增加分子生态毒理学方面指标,以突出生物监测的早期预报作用。  相似文献
3.
The sensitivity of eleven metrics using macroinvertebrate assemblages were evaluated in an environmental gradient in a tropical river in south-east Brazil. Eight sites were sampled in an altitudinal range of 160–650 m.a.s.l. during 1999 (April and August) and 2000 (February). Four substrates were sampled at each site: riffle litter, pool litter, stony substrates and sediment. Correspondence Analysis indicated that assemblages were primarily more influenced by physical changes (like deforestation and erosion processes) than the water chemistry. The sensitivity of each metric was evaluated through the application of box-and-whisker plot method by its power to assess impairment (metrics should be able to discriminate reference sites from impaired sites) and natural variability (metrics should not discriminate two reference sites). Metrics that failed in at least one of the above premises were not considered as sensitive. In this study, the most sensitive metrics were Shannon index, BMWP-ASPT, %_EPT, and relative abundance of EPT to Chironomidae.  相似文献
4.
用八种淡水鱼类监测四种污染物的急性毒性   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
本文采用鲢鱼、鲫鱼、鲤鱼、金鱼、鳊鱼、草鱼、鳙鱼和罗非鱼等八种淡水鱼类为试验生物,研究了丙烯腈、乙腈、硫氰酸钠和二甲基甲酰胺等四种污染物对这八种鱼类的急性毒性效应和不同鱼类的敏感性。试验结果表明,丙烯腈、乙腈、硫氰酸钠和二甲基甲酰胺对八种鱼的96hLC50值分别为561964mg/L,34546346mg/L,10406782mg/L,655116194mg/L,八种鱼类对这些污染物的敏感性基本接近,常用的生物监测试验用鱼(链鱼和鲤鱼)可以较好地代表我国主要的淡水鱼类  相似文献
5.
硅藻指数在水环境监测与评价中的应用   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
介绍了硅藻种类组成对水环境状态的指示作用及硅藻指数法的基本原理,通过比较、分析发现:硅藻属指数适用于综合评价亚热带、热带地区的水体污染程度;硅藻模型相似性指数适用于评价气候稳定地区的水污染状况;生物硅藻指数适用范围广,稳定性最好;湖泊富营养化硅藻指数、营养指数、富营养化硅藻指数均为可靠的水体富营养化评价指数。指出目前硅藻的分类与鉴定体系不够完善,还应开展研究消除季节变化对硅藻指数方法稳定性的影响。  相似文献
6.
主动生物监测技术在水环境风险评价中的应用   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
采用生物监测技术综合分析污染物的环境行为和污染诱导的生物学效应,用于评估和预测水环境中化学品的生态风险,对保护有限的水资源和维持生态系统健康具有重要意义。介绍了主动生物监测的概念、操作流程,以及相对传统的被动生物监测所具有的优势,综述了主动生物监测技术在海洋和淡水环境质量监测中常用的指示生物,以及能对不同污染物作出响应的各种生物标志物,讨论了该领域国内外的最新研究进展。  相似文献
7.
Air pollution has been identified as a serious problem throughout the world which causes tremendous loss to the crops by affecting plant growth and yield. Earlier, air pollution was restricted to urban and industrial regions. Over the last few decades, however, it has become evident that pollutants can be transported over long distances and hence their impact may be felt widely over rural areas. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of urban air pollution on suburban agriculture with respect to the changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency, plant height, numbers of tillers, leaves, ears and seeds, chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, phenol, ascorbic acid, nitrogen and sulphate-sulphur contents and seed weight of pot-grown wheat plants (Triticum aestivum var. HUW 468) kept at different sites around Varanasi city receiving varying levels of pollution load. Mean concentrations of were monitored. The study clearly showed that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. Reduction in various parameters directly corresponded with the air pollution levels at different sites.  相似文献
8.
The concentrations of three representative heavy metals(cadmium, chromium and lead) were measured by atomic absorptionspectroscopy in honeybees and in apiary's products (honey,pollen, propolis, and wax). Samples were collected from fivedifferent sampling points: four from areas surrounding the cityof Rome, and the fifth in the city center which receives intensevehicular traffic. All apiaries employed for this study werespecifically constructed without any metal part in order toavoid the risk of contamination of the assayed materials.Sample collection was conducted over a 3-month period (6samplings for honey and pollen, 3 sampling for propolis and wax,2 samplings for honeybees, all of which were collected in duplicate). Experimental data revealed, in general,statistically significant differences between the backgroundlevels of heavy metals recorded from the reference sites and thelevels measured in the site located in the center of the city ofRome.These results indicate that honeybees and, to a lesser extent,some of their products (pollen, propolis, wax, but not honey),can be considered representative bioindicators of environmentalpollution.  相似文献
9.
中国流域水环境生物监测体系构成和发展   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
分析了国外水环境生物监测体系的构成和特点;总结了中国生物监测的发展历程、基础、存在问题和发展需求;提出了体系发展的总体发展目标,即以流域为单元,以各级支流为监测区段,发展以实现流域水环境生态完整性评价为目的的综合监测体系;同时,着重介绍了重点发展内容:建立以市级站为核心的监测网络;建立包含4个板块的核心业务监测能力;开展生物监测业务标准化建设;进一步完善水环境质量评价报告。对全国监测系统生物监测体系的构成和发展提出建议:在总体发展目标指导下,完成构建水环境生物监测技术体系、构建全国水环境生物监测网络体系、建立数据管理与评价平台及建立运行保障体系4个分目标,实现中国环境管理以"污染防治"为重点到以"生态健康"为目的的转折。  相似文献
10.
Animal hair is a good biomonitoring tool for heavy metals assessment and reflects the content of heavy metals in the forage and soil. Heavy metals Fe, Mn, Co and Ni as well as toxic metals Cd and Pb were determined in goat, sheep and camel hair, forage and soil collected from four different environmental urban and rural regions. These regions are Aswan city farms, Allaqi desert pasture, Kalabsha farms and Halaiub desert pasture at far south of Egypt. The results reveal that sheep hair contains the highest levels of Fe and Mn (879 and 55 μg/g, respectively), camel hair contains the highest Pb, whereas for goat Cd and Ni were the highest. Heavy metal concentrations in the studied hair reflect the presence of these metals in the surrounding forage and soil and vary from one area to another, and give knowledge of pollution in the area. Correlation statistics analysis and cluster analysis show a good and significant value between metals in hair and plants.  相似文献
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